Informácie

Lawrence Cotton


Lawrence Cotton sa narodil v Blackburne. Navštevoval Blackburnovo gymnázium a začal pracovať v obchode s bavlnou v roku 1875. Lawrence a jeho brat Clement neskôr založili vlastnú spoločnosť.

Obchod bol veľkým úspechom a v roku 1891 sa Lawrence Cotton stal riaditeľom Blackburn Rovers. Predsedom klubu sa stal v marci 1905. Investícia bavlny do klubu umožnila manažérovi Robertovi Middletonovi kúpiť niekoľko skvelých hráčov.

Krátko potom, čo sa Cotton stal predsedom, Middleton ignoroval waleského medzinárodného útočníka Billyho Daviesa z Wrexhamu. Do klubu prišiel aj Ellis Crompton, ďalší mladý hráč s povesťou strieľania gólov.

Blackburn Rovers skončil v sezóne 1905-06 na 9. mieste. Adam Bowman bol s 15 gólmi opäť najlepším strelcom klubu. Jeho štrajkový partner Billy Davies pridal ďalších 11. Robert Middleton toho roku urobil niekoľko významných autogramiád, vrátane Jacka Martina, Edwina Latherona a Wattie Aitkenheada.

Lawrence Cotton pomohol získať peniaze na zlepšenie terénu v Elwood Parku. 1. januára 1907 bol otvorený nedávno postavený Nuttell Street Stand. Mohlo by sa tam ubytovať 4112 priaznivcov sediacich v hornom poschodí, pričom vpredu bude stáť ďalších 9 320 fanúšikov. 35-tisícový dav sledoval remízu Blackburn 1: 1 s Preston North End.

Blackburn Rovers skončil v sezóne 1906-07 na 12. mieste. Tottenham Hotspur ich vyradil z FA Cupu, ale vyhrali Lancashire Cup, keď porazili Liverpool 3: 0. Jack Martin sa ukázal ako vynikajúci nákup a skončil so 17 gólmi najlepším strelcom klubu.

Sezóna 1907-08 bola veľkým sklamaním. Blackburn Rovers bol vyradený z FA Cupu v prvom kole, keď ich porazil druholigový Leicester Fosse. Mali tiež výjazd z prvého kola v Lancashire Cupe. Blackburnova ligová forma bola o niečo lepšia a po neskorom mítingu skončili na 14. mieste. Billy Davies, Edwin Latheron a Jack Martin skončili ako najlepší strelci s 9 gólmi.

Nové podpisy Blackburnu nesvietili. The Blackburn Times uviedol: „Druhořadých hráčov by bolo možné výhodne obmedziť a takto ušetrené peniaze použiť na vyplácanie maximálnej mzdy prvotriednym mužom.“

Robert Middleton vymenoval za trénera bývalú hviezdu Prestonu North Enda Boba Holmesa. To malo dobrý vplyv na tím, pretože v sezóne 1908-09 získali 4. miesto. Billy Davies strelil 19 gólov v 27 ligových zápasoch. To zahŕňa štyri góly proti Bristol City i Evertonu. Ellis Crompton (10) a Edwin Latheron (9) pridali k pôsobivému počtu strelených gólov v danej sezóne. Blackburn v tej sezóne vyhral aj Lancashire Cup a East Lancashire Charity Cup.

Blackburn pokračoval v dobrej forme aj v nasledujúcej sezóne a do októbra 1909 sa stali lídrami prvej divízie futbalovej ligy. V januári 1910 stratili pozíciu a nakoniec skončili na 3. mieste za Aston Villou a Liverpoolom. 45 bodov Blackburnu bolo najlepším súčtom, aký kedy v sezóne nazbierali.

Obrana Blackburnu bola v tejto sezóne vynikajúca. V cieli bol anglický reprezentant Jimmy Ashcroft. Bob Crompton a Arthur Cowell boli impozantným párom krajných obrancov. George Chapman hral v strede poľa, zatiaľ čo Albert Walmsley a Billy Bradshaw boli polovicami krídla. Zranenie Billyho Daviesa spôsobilo klubu vážne problémy pred bránkou. Wattie Aitkenhead bol najlepším strelcom so 14 gólmi a dôsledný Edwin Latheron pridal ďalších 10.

V roku 1911 Robert Middleton podpísal Jocka Simpsona z Falkirku za poplatok 1 800 libier. Pripojil sa k prednej línii, ktorá zahŕňala v rôznych časoch sezóny Edwina Latherona, Georga Chapmana, Waltera Anthonyho a Wattie Aitkenheada. Middleton tiež podpísal Alf Robinsona, aby podporil Jimmyho Ashcrofta. Obrana vyzerala veľmi silne a po boku boli hráči ako Bob Crompton, Arthur Cowell, Albert Walmsley, Percy Smith a Billy Bradshaw.

Sezóna 1911-12 začala zle, pretože Blackburn Rovers prehral dva z prvých troch zápasov. Robert Middleton sa rozhodol presunúť Georga Chapmana zo stredu polovice na stredného útočníka. To bol veľký úspech a Blackburnova forma sa postupne zlepšovala a tím pokračoval tri mesiace bez prehry. Tým sa dostali na vrchol ligy.

Napriek tomu, že bol Blackburn porazený Boltonom Wanderers a Arsenalom, pokračoval v ďalšej dobrej jazde a do konca sezóny mal o tri body viac ako hlavný vyzývateľ, Everton. Bolo to vôbec prvýkrát v histórii Blackburnu, keď získali titul vo futbalovej lige. Najlepším strelcom boli Wattie Aitkenhead (15) a George Chapman (9). Jimmy Ashcroft a Alf Robinson hrali dobre a Blackburn inkasoval iba 43 ligových gólov. Menej gólov v tej sezóne strelil iba Everton.

Investícia Lawrence Cottona začínala vyplácať dividendy. Blackburn Rovers začali sezónu 1912-13 veľmi dobre a až do decembra boli neporazení. Nasledovalo päť po sebe idúcich porážok. V snahe získať prvenstvo Robert Middleton prekonal britský prestupový rekord kúpou Dannyho Shea z West Ham United za 2 000 libier. Patsy Gallagherová opísala Shea ako „jedného z najväčších plesových umelcov, ktorí kedy hrali za Anglicko ... jeho manipulácia s loptou bola mätúca“.

Robert Middleton tiež kúpil ďalšieho útočníka Joe Hodkinsona za 1 000 libier. Shea strelil 12 gólov, ale nestačilo to a Blackburn skončil v tejto sezóne na 5. mieste. Ďalšími najlepšími strelcami klubu boli Edwin Latheron (14), Wattie Aitkenhead (13), George Chapman (10). Obrana hrala dobre a v ligových góloch inkasovala iba 43 gólov. Lepšiu defenzívu mal v tej sezóne iba Manchester City.

V júli 1913 sa Alec Bell, škótska medzinárodná ľavá polovica, pripojil k Blackburnu z Manchestru United za 1 000 libier. Bell bol prijatý ako krytie pre polovičnú obrannú líniu Alberta Walmsleyho, Percyho Smitha a Billyho Bradshawa.

Lawrence Cotton okrem nákupu špičkových hráčov investoval aj do vylepšení terénu. Na nový stánok pri rieke Darwen minul 7 000. To poskytlo kryté ubytovanie pre približne 12 000 divákov.

V sezóne 1913-14 získal Blackburn Rovers opäť ligový titul. Danny Shea mal skvelú formu a strelil 27 gólov. V tejto sezóne sa dobre darilo aj Edwinovi Latheronovi s 13 gólmi. Obaja muži v tej sezóne získali aj medzinárodné čiapky pre Anglicko. V tíme Anglicka sa pridali k ďalším hráčom Blackburn, Billy Bradshaw, Jock Simpson, Bob Crompton a Joe Hodkinson. Obrana tiež podávala dobré výkony a v danej sezóne vypustila iba 42 ligových gólov.

Nasledujúcu sezónu Blackburn Rovers prekonal rekord v prestupe, keď kúpil Percyho Dawsona za 2 500 libier od Heart of Midlothian. Blackburn Rovers strelil v sezóne 1914-15 83 gólov. Ich obrana však nebola taká dobrá a Blackburn skončil na 3. mieste za šampiónom, Evertonom. Dawson bol najlepším strelcom s 20 gólmi. Nasledovali ho Edwin Latheron (17), Danny Shea (13), George Chapman (9) a Wattie Aitkenhead (8).

Blackburn Rovers bol jedným z prvých klubov, ktoré navrhli, aby sa futbalová liga zastavila. Lawrence Cotton uviedol, že: „Takým alebo onakým spôsobom to zvládneme a potom, keď sa skončí vojna, pokúsime sa vybudovať to, čo sme stratili. V súčasnosti je však jedinou a jedinou vecou vojna."

Lawrence Cotton sa stal starostom mesta Blackburn v roku 1917 a v dôsledku „rastúceho tlaku na občianske a iné povinnosti“ 19. februára 1919 odstúpil z funkcie predsedu predstavenstva spoločnosti Blackburn Rovers.

Lawrence Cotton zomrel v máji 1921.


Americká vlnená spoločnosť

História Washingtonských mlynov
História Washington Mills je momentkou textilného priemyslu v meste Lawrence. Historická otázka znie, ako čo najlepšie využiť komplex. Táto história zahŕňa masívne investície do priadze meniacej kapitál, ktorá mení vlastníkov, finančné využitie, finančné zlyhanie a obnovu.
Pôvodnou stavbou boli Bay State Mills, postavené v roku 1846 a uvedené do prevádzky v nasledujúcom roku. Vyrábali vlnený, česaný a bavlnený tovar. V dôsledku finančnej havárie v roku 1857 boli mlyny zatvorené a v roku 1859 začali s reorganizáciou, pričom názov spoločnosti bol Washington Mills.

Ayer Brothers z Lowellu, MA (zarobili peniaze na patentové lieky) boli hlavnými investormi. V roku 1885 Washington Mills skončil v konkurze a bol zaradený do aukcie. Fred Ayer kúpil komplex za 328 000 dolárov.

V tom čase Fred Ayer zbúral staré úzke mlyny (niektoré mali 9 poschodí) a predal stroje za sumu svojej kúpnej ceny! Potom postavil nový mlynský komplex s moderným anglickým a americkým strojovým zariadením.

Ayersovi, ktorý bol zle vybavený na to, aby zvládol textilné operácie, priviezli Thomasa Sampsona, ktorý zasa priviedol Williama Wooda, syna portugalských prisťahovalcov, k nástupnému platu 1 800,00 dolárov ročne. Správna rada hlasovala za zrušenie oddelenia bavlny a celý komplex sa venovala výrobe vlnených tkanín.

V nasledujúcich rokoch sa Wood stal súčasťou rodiny Ayerovcov a v roku 1888 sa oženil s dcérou Freda Ayera Ellen. V roku 1895 bol pokladníkom spoločnosti William Wood. V tom čase Kongres schválil Wilsonov -Gormanov colný zákon z roku 1894, ktorý umožňoval dovážanie lacného zahraničného tovaru na americký trh - čo spôsobilo, že vlnené firmy v krajine čelia ekonomickému úpadku.

To neodradilo Wooda, ktorý požadoval prísne finančné účtovníctvo a toľko produkcie od svojich strojov ako od svojich robotníkov (pre ktorých je oprávnene známejší). Woodov štýl spôsobil, že Washington Mills fungoval v čiernych číslach.

V roku 1890 obchodná konsolidácia ohromne vzrástla a Woodovou myšlienkou bolo konsolidovať deficitné vlnené a česané mlyny. Po organizačnom stretnutí v NY vo Waldorf Astoria v roku 1899 sa narodila americká vlna.

Tento obrovský konglomerát pozostával z mlynov nielen od Lawrencea, ale aj od Fitchburgu, firiem Blackstone 3 Rhode Island a jednej newyorskej firmy - celkom 8 mlynov. Výrobky zlúčených mlynov zahŕňali pánsky odev, dámske maskovanie a odevný tovar, ozdobné pokladne, česané výrobky, priadze pradené vo Francúzsku a obyčajné česané priadze. Washingtonské mlyny boli najstaršie, boli založené v roku 1858.
(Roddy, Edward. "Mills, Mansions, and Fergers: the Life of William M. Wood. North Andover, MA: Merrimack Valley Textile Museum, 1982.)

Washingtonské mlyny, pôvodne pomenované ako Bay State Mills a jeden z prvých mlynov v meste Lawrence, sa prestavali tak, že pôvodný mlyn zbúrali a znova postavili na rovnakom mieste a potom pridali ďalšie budovy. Mlyny sa hojdali pri každom finančnom raste a páde - nakoniec zavreli dvere.

Dnes s obnoveným záujmom o obnovu a zachovanie histórie - Washington Mills je v popredí - zachovaním tejto mimoriadne dôležitej štruktúry a umožnením, aby zostala relevantná pre súčasných občanov.
Pozri tiež Washington Mills Building No.1: Preservation Award


Lawrence Cotton - história

Red Hot 1930 a#8217s Cotton Club Show

Našiel sa 16 mm kotúč cenzúrovaných orgií čiernych tanečníkov! Dievčatá z bavlneného klubu sa stali divokými! Najlepšie scény sú na konci! Určené do koša a nikdy ho nebolo treba vidieť! Elegantné dievčatá z čiernej šou sa vrhajú do opery Opera for Jazz, ktorá sa nechá zlákať horúcou jazzovou melódiou. Ale tým to nekončí! Dievčatá sú čoskoro polonahé v tme s mužmi a#8230 WOW WOW !! a potom . Nuž, nemôžem už viac popísať, inak vás možno zapnem! Tento druh akcie z hollywoodskeho hlavného prúdu 30. rokov ste nikdy predtým nevideli! Je vyrobený tak úhľadne, že takmer prešiel Haysovým kódexom, ale nie “dancers orgie ” na konci. Tu to všetko uvidíte! Brilantná titilácia 30. rokov! Teraz ste na rade, aby ste si zaobstarali ČERVENÉ HORKÉ TEPLO! Hviezdy: Dorothy Salter a Maurice Rocco.

The Cotton Club bol nočný klub v New Yorku, ktorý sa nachádzal najskôr v štvrti Harlem a potom v centre mesta Theatre District. Klub fungoval v rokoch 1923 až 1940, najmä počas prohibičnej éry v Amerike. Klub bol len pre bielych, aj keď v ňom vystupovalo mnoho najlepších čiernych zabávačov a jazzových hudobníkov tej doby vrátane Leny Horne, Fletcher Henderson, Duke Ellington, Adelaide Hall, Count Basie, Bessie Smith, Cab Calloway, The Nicholas Brothers, Lottie Gee, Ella Fitzgerald, Fats Waller, Louis Armstrong, Nat King Cole, Billie Holiday a Ethel Waters. V časoch najväčšej slávy slúžil Cotton Club ako miesto moderného stretnutia, na ktorom sa pravidelne zúčastňujú slávnosti#8220 Celebrity Nights a#8221 a v ktorých sa predstavia celebrity ako Jimmy Durante, George Gershwin, Sophie Tucker, Paul Robeson, Al Jolson, Mae West, Richard Rodgers, Medzi inými Irving Berlin, Eddie Cantor, Fanny Brice, Langston Hughes, Judy Garland, Moss Hart a starosta Jimmy Walker.

V roku 1920 šampión v boxe ťažkej váhy Jack Johnson otvoril Cotton Club pod názvom „Club Deluxe“ na rohu 142. ulice a Lenox Avenue v srdci štvrte Harlem. Owney Madden, prominentný pašerák a gangster, prevzal klub v roku 1923, keď bol uväznený v Sing Sing, a zmenil si názov na Cotton Club. ” Medzi týmito dvoma bola dohodnutá dohoda, ktorá Johnsonovi umožnila byť stále manažérom klubu. Madden “ využíval vatový klub ako predajňu na predaj svojho piva č. 1 zákazovým davom. ” (Aj keď bol klub v roku 1925 na krátky čas zatvorený kvôli predaju alkoholu, bez problémov ho polícia opäť otvorila). Od tej doby sa stal manažérom javiska muž menom Herman Stark. Stránka vybraná pre centrum mesta Cotton Club bola ideálna. Bola to veľká miestnosť na najvyššom poschodí budovy na Broadwayi a na Ulici štyridsaťosem, kde sa stretávajú Broadway a Siedma avenue-dôležitá križovatka v centre mesta a v srdci Veľkej bielej cesty, Divadelná štvrť Broadway. Aj keď si Herman Stark a majitelia klubu boli istí, že sa klubu v novom mieste bude dobre dariť, uvedomili si, že to závisí od úvodnej show, ktorá bude znamenať veľký úspech.

Cotton Club bol nadáciou „iba pre bielych“. Klub reprodukoval dobové rasistické obrazy a často zobrazoval černochov ako divochov v exotických džungliach alebo ako “darkies ” na plantáži Juh. Klub uvalil na zborové dievčatá, ktoré klub predstavil v skromných šatách, jemnejšiu farebnú lištu: očakávalo sa, že budú vysoké, opálené a úžasné, a to znamená, že museli mať najmenej 5 stôp 6 palcov. vysoký, svetlej pleti a mladší ako dvadsaťjeden rokov. Farba pokožky tanečníkov bola pestrejšia. „Čierni interpreti sa nemiešali s klientelou klubu a po výstave mnohí z nich odišli do suterénu superintendenta na adrese 646 Lenox, kde nasiakli kukuričnú whisky, broskyňová brandy a marihuana. “ Očakávalo sa, že Ellington napíše “jungle music ” pre publikum bielych. To, čo Ellington prispel do Cotton Clubu, je na nezaplatenie a je to perfektne zhrnuté v tomto roku 1937 New York Timesúryvok z textu: “ Tak dlho nech vládne empirický vojvoda a jeho kohúti tvoriaci hudbu – a nech si Cotton Club naďalej pamätá, že prišiel z Harlemu. ” Ceny pre zákazníkov boli vysoké, takže účinkujúci mali veľmi vysoké platy. .

Prvé roky

Cotton Club na 125. ulici v New Yorku, december 2013.

Klub však taktiež pomohol rozbehnúť kariéru Fletchera Hendersona, ktorý viedol prvú kapelu, ktorá tam hrala v roku 1923, a Duke Ellingtona, ktorého orchestrom bola domáca kapela od 4. decembra 1927 do 30. júna 1931. V roku 1927 , prvá revue s Duke Ellingtonom sa volala ‘Rhythmania ’ a predstavila Adelaide Hall, ktorá s Ellingtonom práve nahrala niekoľko piesní vrátane piesne ‘Creole Love Call ‘. Ich nahrávka ‘Creole Love Call ‘ sa stala celosvetovým hitom. Klub nielenže poskytol národnú expozíciu Ellingtonu prostredníctvom rádiových vysielaní, ktoré tam pochádzajú (najskôr cez WHN, potom cez WEAF a po septembri 1929 prostredníctvom červenej siete NBC – WEAF bola vlajkovou stanicou pre túto sieť – v piatok), ale tiež umožnil aby rozvíjal svoj repertoár a komponoval nielen tanečné melódie na predstavenia, ale aj predohry, prechody, sprievody a efekty “jungle ”, ktoré mu poskytli slobodu experimentovať s orchestrálnymi farbami a aranžmánmi, aké mali turné skupiny len zriedka. Ellington zaznamenal počas tejto éry viac ako 100 skladieb. Nakoniec, vzhľadom na žiadosť Ellingtona, klub mierne uvoľnil svoju politiku vylúčenia čiernych zákazníkov.

Cab Calloway a orchester#8217s priniesli svoje Hnedý cukor revue do klubu v roku 1930, pričom nahradil Ellingtonov orchester po jeho odchode v roku 1931 a skupina Jimmie Lunceford nahradila v roku 1934 skupinu Calloway ’s, zatiaľ čo Ellington, Armstrong a Calloway sa vrátili k účinkovaniu v klube v neskorších rokoch. Najviac honosná revue v trinásťročnej histórii Cotton Clubu sa otvorila na Broadwayi 24. septembra 1936. Robinson a Calloway viedli zoznam asi 130 ďalších účinkujúcich. Klub bol tiež prvou príležitosťou pre šoubiznis pre Lenu Horne, ktorá tam začala ako zborová dievčina vo veku šestnástich rokov. Dorothy Dandridge tam účinkovala ešte ako jedna z The Dandridge Sisters, zatiaľ čo Coleman Hawkins a Don Redman tam hrali ako súčasť Henderson &# Pásmo 8217s. Zahrali si tu aj tanečníci stepu Bill “Bojangles ” Robinson, Sammy Davis Jr. (ako súčasť Will Mastin Trio) a Nicholas Brothers.

Klub čerpal aj z belošskej populárnej kultúry dňa. Walter Brooks, ktorý produkoval úspešnú show na Broadwayi Shuffle Along, bol nominálnym majiteľom. Dorothy Fields a Jimmy McHugh, jeden z najvýznamnejších tímov skladateľov tejto doby, a Harold Arlen poskytli piesne pre revue, z ktorých jedna bola “ Blackbirds of 1928 “, v hlavnej úlohe Adelaide Hall, predstavila piesne “I Can &# 8217t Darujte vám čokoľvek iné ako lásku ” a “Diga Diga Doo ”, produkoval Lew Leslie na Broadwayi.

V roku 1934 účinkovala Adelaide Hall v Cotton Clube v ‘Cotton Club Parade ’, najväčšej zárobkovej šou, aká sa kedy v klube objavila. Šou sa začala 11. marca a trvala osem mesiacov a prilákala viac ako 600 000 platiacich zákazníkov. Skóre napísali Harold Arlen a Ted Koehler a predstavila klasickú pieseň ‘ll Wind ’. Počas predstavenia ‘Ill Wind ’ spoločnosti Hall ’, aby sa zvýšila autenticita výroby, bol na pódiu na vytvorenie efektu hmly použitý stroj na suchý ľad. Toto zariadenie bolo prvýkrát použité na pódiu. Na návrhu zákona bola 16-ročná Lena Horne.

Klub bol dočasne zatvorený v roku 1936 po pretekoch v Harleme v predchádzajúcom roku. Fotograf Carl Van Vechten sa zaviazal bojkotovať klub za zavedenie takýchto rasistických politík. Bavlnený klub sa znova otvoril o rok neskôr na Broadwayi a na 48. mieste. V skutočnosti z roku 1937 New York Times článok píše: „Bavlnený klub vyliezol na Broadwayský vlak a predviedol šou, ktorá je vypočítaná tak, aby zákazníkom poskytla zvuk i farbu - a to aj robí. ” V tom roku Stark súhlasil, že zaplatí stepmanovi Bill & #8220Bojangles ” Robinson 3 500 dolárov týždenne, najvyšší plat, aký kedy bol černošskému zabávačovi v produkcii na Broadwayi vyplatený, a viac peňazí, než kedy ktorýkoľvek jednotlivec dostal za vystúpenie v nočnom klube.

V roku 1940 sa definitívne zavrela pod tlakom vyšších nájmov, meniacich sa vkusov a federálneho vyšetrovania daňových únikov majiteľov nočných klubov na Manhattane. V jeho priestoroch sa otvoril nočný klub Latinskej štvrte a budova bola v roku 1989 zbúraná, aby uvoľnila miesto hotelu. Bavlnený klub Broadway bol celkovo veľmi úspešnou zmesou starého a nového. Stránka mohla byť nová, výzdoba sa mohla mierne líšiť, ale akonáhle patrón vstúpil a pohodlne sa usadil, vedel, že je na známom mieste.

Jazzový spisovateľ James Haskins napísal v roku 1977 “ Dnes existuje nová inkarnácia Cotton Clubu, ktorý sa nachádza na najzápadnejšom konci 125. ulice pod masívnym viaduktom Manhattanville. Blok budovy bez okien má vpredu menej dramatický displej, ale zdá sa, že je turistami obľúbený na nedeľné jazzové brunchy. ”

Ostatné pobočky

Chicagskú pobočku Cotton Clubu viedol Ralph Capone a pobočka Cotton Clubu na západnom pobreží existovala v Culver City v Kalifornii na konci dvadsiatych a na začiatku tridsiatych rokov minulého storočia a predstavila interpretov z pôvodného klubu Cotton Club, ako sú Armstrong, Calloway a Ellington. V malajskom Kuala Lumpur sa otvoril novší klub.

In Populárna kultúra

Bavlnený klub je film režírovaný Francisom Fordom Coppolom, ktorý ponúka históriu klubu playboy v kontexte rasových vzťahov v 30. rokoch 20. storočia a bitiek medzi Maddenom, Holanďanom Schultzom, Vincentom a#8220 Mad Dogom#8221 Coll, Lucky Lucianom a Ellsworth “Bumppy ” Johnson. Je to prediskutované v dokumente Ken Burns PBS z roku 2001, Jazz.

Cotton Club bol stručne znázornený vo filme z roku 1997 Hrdlorez predstavia Laurence Fishburne, Tim Roth a Andy Garcia. Klub navštevovaný holandským Schultzom (Roth) bol miestom konfrontácie medzi Schultzom a Ellsworthom “Bumpy ” Johnson (Fishburne).

Fiktívna verzia klubu, premenovaná na Cotton Pickers Club, sa objavuje aj vo filme Jamesa Cagneyho Taxi!.

Video k piesni z roku 1983 “Joanna ” od Kool & amp the Gang predstavuje rovnomennú Joannu, ktorá si spomína na svoje časy ako tanečníčka v Cotton Clube.

V epizóde úspešnej televíznej show Disney Channel Mravčia farma, hlavná postava sa prebúdza ako Ella Fitzgerald a ona spieva v Cotton Clube.

Po polnoci je hudobná revue Broadwaya z roku 2013 o hudbe Duka Ellingtona a jeho rokoch v známom nočnom klube Harlem.


Lawrence Cotton - história

[str. 433] dôchodca z Pulaski, ktorý sa dlhé roky úspešne zaoberal poľnohospodárstvom a chovom dobytka v mestečku Pulaski a stále si zachováva svoju deväťdesiat akrovú farmu, sa narodil v meste Pulaski v okrese Lawrence v Pensylvánii 29. novembra 1831. syn Hugha a Diadema (Drake) Cottona.

Hugh Cotton sa tiež narodil v Pulaski Township a bol synom Williama Cottona, ktorý bol zakladateľom rodiny v tejto časti. William Cotton bol rodákom z Washington County v Pensylvánii. Odtiaľ prišiel do Lawrence County, než bolo v tejto vtedy divokej časti urobených veľa osád, a zaistil 600 akrov pôdy v Pulaski Township, pričom predvídanie zabezpečovalo jeho potomkov. Jeho syn Hugh zdedil značnú časť tejto zeme a žil na nej až do konca svojho života v roku 1852. Bol dvakrát ženatý a tri z jeho detí stále prežili, a to: William, Mary D., s bydliskom v Jackville v Pensylvánii, ktorý je vdova po Samuelovi McBridovi a Sarah D., ktorá je vdovou po Johnovi Deanovi, predtým z Harlansburgu. Teraz žije v Slippery Rock v Butler County. V jeho ranom politickom živote bol Hugh Cotton whigom. Mal silný charakter a bol známy svojou spravodlivosťou a svojou dobrotivosťou.

William Cotton navštevoval okresné školy v chlapčenskom veku, ktoré napriek svojim obmedzeniam produkovali mužov a ženy schopných dobre vykonávať svoje úlohy v živote. Mal tiež súkromné ​​vzdelanie a aj keď svoj život zasvätil aktívnym rokom, výlučne poľnohospodárskej činnosti, pravdepodobne by bol rovnako úspešný aj v iných oblastiach. Jeho farma s rozlohou deväťdesiat akrov v černošskej štvrti Pulaski je cenným majetkom. Pozemok je dobre prispôsobený tak obecnému obrábaniu pôdy, ako aj chovu dobytka. Pán Cotton dlhé roky obrábal túto krajinu, ale v roku 1896 bremeno položil na mladšie plecia a so svojou odhadovanou manželkou odišiel do Pulaski, kde si užívajú pohodlný domov.

30. apríla 1857 bol pán Cotton ženatý s Elizou A. Kerchoffovou, ktorá sa narodila v okrese Berks v Pensylvánii a je dcérou Daniela a Sarah (Morelandových) Kerchoffových. Daniel Kerchoff bol z nemeckého pôvodu, ale narodil sa v Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Jeho manželka mala anglických predkov, ale narodila sa v Chester County. V roku 1850 prišli Kerchoffovci z Berksu do Lawrence County a nachádzali sa na Novom zámku, kde Daniel Kerchoff aj manželka zomreli. Päť z ich detí prežilo, a to: Reuben s bydliskom na Novom zámku Mary, vdova po Philipovi Altenderferovi, s bydliskom v Readingu Sarah, vdova po Jamesovi Chambersovi s bydliskom na Novom zámku Eliza A., ktorá je manželkou Williama Cottona, a Rebecca, ktorá je vdovou po Josephovi Cubbisonovi s bydliskom na Novom zámku. Williamovi Cottonovi a manželke sa narodilo šesť detí, konkrétne: Jesse L., bývalý pastor Presbyteriánskej cirkvi na Coraopolis v Pensylvánii, zastáva predsedníctvo hebrejčiny na Princetonskej univerzite a je mužom so skvelými výsledkami Rhoda M., ktorá je manželkou. Williama M. Webba, známeho advokáta v Akrone v štáte Ohio, Samuela R. s bydliskom v černošskej štvrti Pulaski a troch zosnulých.

V politike pán Cotton dôsledne podporuje kandidátov republikánskej strany. Je to muž s výraznými zásadami striedmosti a vždy dáva svoj vplyv na pomoc legislatíve v tejto oblasti. So svojou manželkou patrí k presbyteriánskej cirkvi v Pulaski, v ktorej vládne. 30. apríla 1907 sa oslavovalo zlaté výročie svadby manželov Cottonových a bola to veľmi zaujímavá príležitosť.

História 20. storočia v New Castle and Lawrence County Pennsylvania and Representative Citizens Hon. Aaron L. Hazen Richmond-Arnold Publishing Company, Chicago, Ill., 1908


Záznamy spoločnosti Lawrence Manufacturing Company

Zbierka, ktorá je pozoruhodne kompletná, obsahuje účtovné knihy, záznamy o výrobe a predaji, mzdy a korešpondenciu. Najväčší záujem je o korešpondenciu, najmä listy pokladníka a agenta, záznamy o tržbách, polročné správy riaditeľom a výplaty. Pokladník a agent boli v dennej komunikácii listom a táto korešpondencia poskytuje bohatý záznam o aktivitách spoločnosti. V korešpondencii pokladníka sú zastúpení Henry Hall, Henry V. Ward, Thomas Jefferson Coolidge, L. M. Sargent a C. P. Baker. Korešpondencia zástupcov obsahuje listy Williama Austina, Johna Aikena, Williama S. Southwortha, Williama F. Salmona, Daniela Husseyho, Johna Kilburna, Franklina Nourseho a E. H. Walkera a jeho adresu. Existuje aj mnoho listov adresovaných predajcom a od nich, najmä Townsendovi a Yaleovi (neskôr E. M. Townsendovi a amp. Co). Mzdové záznamy obsahujú záznamy pre každú mlyn a tiež všeobecné mzdové záznamy. Ich súčasťou je aj register mien a záznamy o poistení zodpovednosti.

Výskumníci by mali vziať na vedomie, že v mnohých prípadoch môže byť všeobecná korešpondencia, pokiaľ je v danom roku podaná abecedne, podaná buď pod menom firmy predstavovanej listom, alebo osobou, ktorá list podpísala. Napríklad listy od majiteľov zámkov a kanálov v sedemdesiatych a osemdesiatych rokoch minulého storočia sú uložené pod menom agenta spoločnosti Jamesa Francisa, ktorý podpisoval listy svojim osobným menom, ale listy od firmy Appleton, Amory & amp Co., ktoré sú podpísané s názvom spoločnosti sa uvádzajú pod názvom spoločnosti.

V 10-ročných intervaloch boli odobraté vzorky z poukážok, šekových knižiek, faktúr, správ o plátennom a pančuchovom tovare, konosamentov, zrušených šekov, zrušených skladových certifikátov, dividendových príkazov a správ o nákupe bavlny za roky 1870-1910.

Dodatočný popis

Historická poznámka:

Spoločnosť Lawrence Manufacturing Company v meste Lowell v štáte Massachusetts bola založená v roku 1831 a začala svoju činnosť v roku 1833. Spoločnosť pôvodne vyrábala košele, plachty a tlačiarenské tkaniny, ale v roku 1864 rozšírila výrobu pleteného tovaru, ako napríklad pančuchového tovaru a spodnej bielizne.

Založenie spoločnosti nasledovalo vzor ostatných mlynov, ktoré boli založené v Lowelli počas predchádzajúceho desaťročia. Bostonskí podnikatelia Nathan Appleton a Patrick Tracy Jackson uznali, že vodopády Pawtucket Falls na rieke Merrimack, nachádzajúce sa v riedko osídlenej oblasti East Chelmsford, predstavujú prvotný zdroj vodnej energie, ktorý je možné využiť na dosiahnutie zisku. V roku 1821 boli Appleton a Jackson so skupinou investorov začlenení ako majitelia zámkov a kanálov na rieke Merrimack. Kúpili pozemky a práva na vodu v tejto oblasti. Tí, ktorí investujú do mlyna, by kúpili pôdu priamo a potom by si prenajali vodnú energiu od majiteľov zámkov a kanálov. Samozrejme, často boli investori v mlyne a majitelia plavebných komôr a kanálov tí istí. East Chelmsford bol začlenený ako mesto Lowell v roku 1826.

V roku 1831 pracovalo v Lowelli sedem mlynov. V presvedčení, že v textilnom priemysle naďalej existuje priestor na rast, sa rovnaká skupina podnikateľov rozhodla otvoriť ďalší mlyn. Rovnako ako predtým boli ochotní dať väčšinu kapitálu do nového mlyna na bavlnu, ak sa nájdu kompetentní muži, ktorí budú podnikať. Boli oslovení bratia a obchodní partneri Amos a Abbott Lawrence, úspešní bostonskí obchodníci, ktorí tiež investovali do závodov Suffolk a Tremont Mills. Ponuku prijali v neposlednom rade preto, že ich firma A. & amp. A. Lawrence sa tak stane stálymi predajnými agentmi pre skupinu mlynov, čím sa výrazne rozšíri ich domáci obchod s bavlnou.

Organizačné a prevádzkové zásady spoločnosti Lawrence Manufacturing boli reprezentatívne pre ostatné závody v Lowelli. Sedemčlenné predstavenstvo riadilo spoločnosť z bostonskej kancelárie, stanovovalo politiky a rozhodovalo. Pokladník, ktorý bol členom predstavenstva, nakupoval, platil účty a riadil každodenné podnikanie spoločnosti. Pokladníkovi bol podriadený mlynársky agent so sídlom v Lowelli a žijúci v dome vo vlastníctve spoločnosti, ktorý mal kompletne na starosti mlyny aj penzióny. Po roku 1844 mlynský agent spravoval aj mzdové a bežné továrenské náklady.

Spoločnosť Lawrence Manufacturing udržiavala svoje vlastné sklady bavlny v New Orleans, Bostone a Lowelli do roku 1850. V tom čase bol sklad v New Orleans predaný a bavlna bola ihneď po nákupe odoslaná priamo do Bostonu.

Rozhodli sa vyhnúť sa notoricky drsným podmienkam v anglických textilných mestách, zakladatelia Lowellových mlynov zaviedli systém, ktorý má prilákať „úctyhodnú“ pracovnú silu zloženú predovšetkým z mladých žien z vidieckeho Nového Anglicka. Lawrencove mlyny sa v drvivej väčšine ženskej pracovnej sile podobali na ostatné Lowelské mlyny. V roku 1840 napríklad Lawrence zamestnával 1290 žien a iba 200 mužov. Väčšina Lawrencových slobodných robotníčok, podobne ako ostatné Lowellove „mlynárky“, žila v penziónoch vo vlastníctve spoločnosti a v službe alebo mimo služby boli viazané predpismi, ktoré ich mali udržať na morálnej rovine a úzkosti. V penziónoch žili aj slobodní muži, zatiaľ čo ženatí muži s rodinami žili v činžiakoch vo vlastníctve spoločností. Na začiatku štyridsiatych a osemdesiatych rokov minulého storočia sa počet prisťahovalcov zamestnaných v Lowellových mlynoch výrazne zvýšil. Imigranti boli spočiatku predovšetkým Íri. Neskôr do Lowellu hľadalo prácu veľký počet francúzskych kanadských, poľských, portugalských a gréckych prisťahovalcov, mužov i žien. Navyše do Lowellu prichádzali v rastúcom počte celé rodiny Yankeesovcov. Na rozdiel od slobodných žien, ktoré prišli z vidieckych oblastí pracovať do mlynov rok alebo dva pred návratom domov, rodinné skupiny, prisťahovalec alebo Yankee, urobili z Lowellu svoj nový domov. Nie je prekvapením, že mali tendenciu žiť ako rodinné alebo etnické jednotky a neboli naklonení životu v prísne regulovanom firemnom bývaní. Over the course of the nineteenth century unmarried operatives temporarily living and working in Lowell became an ever-smaller proportion of the labor force. More and more of the mill workers were members of families who had settled permanently in Lowell. The boarding houses were used less and less and were finally sold by the corporations around the turn of the twentieth century.

Lawrence Manufacturing was affected by economic fluctuations, closing wholly or in part at least three times before the Civil War. In 1862 nine mills in Lowell, including Lawrence, anticipated a shortage of cotton from the south for the duration of the Civil War and shut down entirely. Ten thousand mill workers, approximately 1600 of whom worked for Lawrence, were thrown out of work. Lawrence Manufacturing reopened early in 1864, adding hosiery and underwear manufacture to the production of cotton.

By 1865 both Amos and Abbott Lawrence had died, and the firms of George C. Richardson and Company and R. M. Bailey and Company were the selling agents for Lawrence Manufacturing. Townsend and Yale (later E. M. Townsend and Company) replaced R. M. Bailey and Company in 1866 as the selling agents for shirts, drawers and woolen hosiery.

Like the other Lowell textile firms, Lawrence Manufacturing was adversely affected by a number of factors in the decades following the Civil War. Despite expanded production due to the introduction of steam power (inaugurated at Lawrence in 1871), Lowell was no longer preeminent among cotton manufacturing cities. Increased labor trouble, the rise of New Bedford and Fall River as textile manufacturing centers, and economic shifts all contributed to the slow decline of the Lowell textile industry. In 1896 Lawrence responded to changing conditions by abandoning the manufacture of woven cotton cloth, their original product, to concentrate on the previously supplemental line of knitted hosiery and underwear.

Despite a brief upswing during World War I, increasing competition from Southern textile concerns took a continuing toll on Northern mills, including Lawrence Manufacturing. In 1926 the assets of the company were sold to Stevens and Son of North Andover, Massachusetts. The mills continued to operate as a subsidiary of a larger concern into the 1980’s.


The True Story of Lawrence of Arabia

Sipping tea and chain-smoking L&M cigarettes in his reception tent in Mudowarra, Sheik Khaled Suleiman al-Atoun waves a hand to the outside, in a generally northern direction. “Lawrence came here, you know?” he says. “Several times. The biggest time was in January of 1918. He and other British soldiers came in armored cars and attacked the Turkish garrison here, but the Turks were too strong and they had to retreat.” He pulls on his cigarette, before adding with a tinge of civic pride: “Yes, the British had a very hard time here.”

Súvisiaci obsah

While the sheik was quite correct about the resiliency of the Turkish garrison in Mudowarra—the isolated outpost held out until the final days of World War I—the legendary T.E. Lawrence’s “biggest time” there was open to debate. In Lawrence’s own telling, that incident occurred in September 1917, when he and his Arab followers attacked a troop train just south of town, destroying a locomotive and killing some 70 Turkish soldiers.

The southernmost town in Jordan, Mudowarra was once connected to the outside world by means of that railroad. One of the great civil-engineering projects of the early 20th century, the Hejaz Railway was an attempt by the Ottoman sultan to propel his empire into modernity and knit together his far-flung realm.

By 1914, the only remaining gap in the line was located in the mountains of southern Turkey. When that tunneling work was finished, it would have been theoretically possible to travel from the Ottoman capital of Constantinople all the way to the Arabian city of Medina, 1,800 miles distant, without ever touching the ground. Instead, the Hejaz Railway fell victim to World War I. For nearly two years, British demolition teams, working with their Arab rebel allies, methodically attacked its bridges and isolated depots, quite rightly perceiving the railroad as the Achilles’ heel of the Ottoman enemy, the supply line linking its isolated garrisons to the Turkish heartland.

In desert war, Lawrence advised, get to know “clans and tribes, friends and enemies, wells, hills and roads” (Turkish fort ruins in Jordan). (Ivor Prickett) Sheik al-Atoun recalls family tales of Lawrence’s exploits. “He was an expert in demolitions,” al-Atoun says, “and taught my grandfather how it was done.” (Ivor Prickett) Capturing Aqaba was Lawrence’s great triumph: “The enemy,” he wrote, “had never imagined attack from the interior” (above, Aqaba today, the Red Sea port in Jordan). (Ivor Prickett) Lawrence (in traditional garb, 1919) was caught between rebels seeking pan-Arab independence and Western powers’ designs on the Mideast. (Private Collection / Peter Newark Military Pictures / Bridgeman Images) After Lawrence’s crash 200 yards from his cottage (above), the surgeon who tried to save his life, Hugh Cairns, developed crash helmets for motorcyclists. (Alex Masi) A swimmer finds relief from the stifling Arabian heat in the Red Sea in the coastal city of Aqaba, Jordan. (Ivor Prickett) The only seaport of Jordan, Aqaba, on the northeastern tip of the Red Sea, is known today for its beaches and commercial activities. (Ivor Prickett) A shopper examines produce at a market in Aqaba. Lawrence’s crucial battle for Aqaba occurred 40 miles north of the city. (Ivor Prickett) Tourists snap photos of “Lawrence’s camp,” in Wadi Rum, which the British officer passed through during World War I. (Ivor Prickett/Panos Pictures) A Bedouin man herds tourist camels across the desert through Wadi Rum, site of the Arab Revolt of 1917-18. (Ivor Prickett/Panos Pictures) Storm clouds roll into the Dead Sea valley near the city of Wadi Musa. (Ivor Prickett/Panos Pictures) As a boy, Abu Enad Daraoush and his friends found remains of Turkish forces at Aba el Lissan—“Bones everywhere,” he recalls, “skulls and ribs and spines.” (Ivor Prickett) Storm clouds roll into the Dead Sea valley near the city of Wadi Musa. (Ivor Prickett/Panos Pictures) Once the site of bloodshed, Aba el Lissan, Jordan, saw T.E .Lawrence and his rebel fighters slaughter hundreds of Turkish soldiers in 1917. (Ivor Prickett) Writer Scott Anderson explores the crumbling ruins of southern Jordan’s Turkish forts. (Ivor Prickett/Panos Pictures) Ottoman forts and outposts have fallen to ruin in southern Jordan near the route of the old Hejaz Railway. (Ivor Prickett/Panos Pictures) A window in what was once a Turkish fort overlooks a desolate desert landscape near the Hejaz Railway. (Ivor Prickett/Panos Pictures) T.E. Lawrence (“Lawrence of Arabia”) is immortalized in a portrait at Clouds Hill, his former home near Wool, Dorset County, England. (Alex Masi) Turkish trenches, remembrances of the war, scar the landscape in Jordan. (Ivor Prickett/Panos Pictures) A life catalogued in pictures: T.E. Lawrence’s career is captured in photographs on display in Clouds Hill. (Alex Masi) “There is no other man I know who could have achieved what Lawrence did.” Echoing Gen. Edmund Allenby’s sentiments, pictures pay homage to the life of “Lawrence of Arabia” at Clouds Hill. (Alex Masi) Before his death, Lawrence retreated to Clouds Hill, a simple cottage in the foothills of southwest England, now open to the public. (Alex Masi) Clouds Hill holds many artifacts from Lawrence’s life, including a gramophone and a painting that once belonged to him. (Alex Masi)

One of the most prolific of the British attackers was a young army officer named T.E. Lawrence. By his count, Lawrence personally blew up 79 bridges along the railway, becoming so adept that he perfected a technique of leaving a bridge “scientifically shattered”—ruined but still standing. Turkish crews then faced the time-consuming task of dismantling the wreckage before repairs could begin.

By war’s end, damage to the railway was so extensive that much of it was abandoned. In Jordan today, the line runs only from the capital city of Amman to a point 40 miles north of Mudowarra, where a modern spur veers off to the west. Around Mudowarra, all that is left is the raised berm and gravel of the rail bed, along with remnants of culverts and station houses destroyed nearly a century ago. This trail of desolation stretches south 600 miles to the Saudi Arabian city of Medina in the Arabian Desert there still sit several of the war-mangled train cars, stranded and slowly rusting away.

One who laments the loss is Sheik al-Atoun, Mudowarra’s leading citizen and a tribal leader in southern Jordan. As one of his sons, a boy of about 10, constantly refills our teacups in the reception tent, the sheik describes Mudowarra as a poor and remote area. “If the railway still existed,” he says, “it would be very different. We would be connected, both economically and politically to north and south. Instead, there is no development here, and Mudowarra has always stayed a small place.”

The sheik was aware of a certain irony in his complaint, given that his grandfather worked alongside T.E. Lawrence in sabotaging the railroad. “Of course, at that time,” al-Atoun says ruefully, “my grandfather thought that these destructions were a temporary matter because of the war. But they actually became permanent.”

Today, T.E. Lawrence remains one of the most iconic figures of the early 20th century. His life has been the subject of at least three movies—including one considered a masterpiece—over 70 biographies, several plays and innumerable articles, monographs and dissertations. His wartime memoir, Seven Pillars of Wisdom, translated into more than a dozen languages, remains in print nearly a full century after its first publication. As Gen. Edmund Allenby, chief British commander in the Middle East during World War I, noted, Lawrence was first among equals: “There is no other man I know,” he asserted, “who could have achieved what Lawrence did.”

Part of the enduring fascination has to do with the sheer improbability of Lawrence’s tale, of an unassuming young Briton who found himself the champion of a downtrodden people, thrust into events that changed the course of history. Added to this is the poignancy of his journey, so masterfully rendered in David Lean’s 1962 film, Lawrence of Arabia, of a man trapped by divided loyalties, torn between serving the empire whose uniform he wore and being true to those fighting and dying alongside him. It is this struggle that raises the Lawrence saga to the level of Shakespearean tragedy, as it ultimately ended badly for all concerned: for Lawrence, for the Arabs, for Britain, in the slow uncoiling of history, for the Western world at large. Loosely cloaked about the figure of T.E. Lawrence there lingers the wistful specter of what might have been if only he had been listened to.

For the past several years, Sheik al-Atoun has assisted archaeologists from Bristol University in England who are conducting an extensive survey of the war in Jordan, the Great Arab Revolt Project (GARP). One of the Bristol researchers, John Winterburn, recently discovered a forgotten British Army camp in the desert 18 miles from Mudowarra untouched for nearly a century—Winterburn even collected old gin bottles—the find was touted in the British press as the discovery of “Lawrence’s Lost Camp.”

“We do know that Lawrence was at that camp,” Winterburn says, sitting at a Bristol University café. “But, as best we can tell, he probably stayed only a day or two. But all the men who were there much longer, none of them were Lawrence, so it becomes ‘Lawrence’s camp.’”

For most travelers, Highway 15, Jordan’s main north-south thoroughfare, offers a dull drive through a largely featureless desert connecting Amman to more interesting places: the ruins at Petra, the Red Sea beaches of Aqaba.

To GARP co-director Nicholas Saunders, however, Highway 15 is a treasure trove. “Most people have no idea that they’re traveling through one of the best-preserved battlefields in the world,” he explains, “that all around them are reminders of the pivotal role this region played in World War I.”

Saunders is at his desk in his cluttered office at Bristol, where scattered amid the stacks of papers and books are relics from his own explorations along Highway 15: bullet casings, cast-iron tent rings. Since 2006, Saunders has headed up some 20 GARP digs in southern Jordan, excavating everything from Turkish Army encampments and trenchworks, to Arab rebel campsites and old British Royal Flying Corps airstrips. What unites these disparate sites—indeed what led to their creation—is the single-track railway that runs alongside Highway 15 for some 250 miles: the old Hejaz Railway.

As first articulated by T.E. Lawrence, the goal wasn’t to permanently sever the Turks’ southern lifeline, but rather to keep it barely functioning. The Turks would have to constantly devote resources to its repair, while their garrisons, receiving just enough supplies to survive, would be stranded. Indications of this strategy are everywhere evident along Highway 15 while many of the original small bridges and culverts that the Ottomans constructed to navigate the region’s seasonal waterways are still in place—instantly recognizable by their ornate stonework arches—many more are of modern, steel-beam construction, denoting where the originals were blown up during the war.

The GARP expeditions have produced an unintended consequence. Jordan’s archaeological sites have long been plundered by looters—and this has now extended to World War I sites. Fueled by the folkloric memory of how Turkish forces and Arab rebels often traveled with large amounts of gold coins—Lawrence himself doled out tens of thousands of English pounds’ worth of gold in payments to his followers—locals quickly descend on any newly discovered Arab Revolt site with spades in hand to start digging.

“So of course, we’re part of the problem,” Saunders says. “The locals see all these rich foreigners digging away,” Saunders adds wryly, “on our hands and knees all day in the hot sun, and they think to themselves, ‘No way. No way are they doing this for some old bits of metal they’re here to find the gold.’”

As a result, GARP archaeologists remain on a site until satisfied that they’ve found everything of interest, and then, with the Jordanian government’s permission, take everything with them when closing down the site. From past experience, they know they’re likely to discover only mounds of turned earth upon their return.

Set amid rolling brown hills given over to groves of orange and pistachio trees, the village of Karkamis has the soporific feel of many rural towns in southern Turkey. On its slightly rundown main street, shopkeepers gaze vacantly out at deserted sidewalks, while in a tiny, tree-shaded plaza, idled men play dominoes or cards.

If this seems a peculiar setting for the place where a young Lawrence first came to his appreciation of the Arab world, the answer actually lies about a mile east of the village. There, on a promontory above a ford of the Euphrates sits the ruins of the ancient city of Carchemish. While human habitation on that hilltop dates back at least 5,000 years, it was a desire to unlock the secrets of the Hittites, a civilization that reached its apogee in the 11th century B.C., that first brought a 22-year-old Lawrence here in 1911.

Even before Carchemish, there were signs that the world might well hear of T.E. Lawrence in some capacity. Born in 1888, the second of five boys in an upper-middle-class British family, his almost-paralyzing shyness masked a brilliant mind and a ferocious independent streak.

About Scott Anderson

Scott Anderson is a former war correspondent and the author of seven books including The Man who Tried to Save the World, Triage, War Zones and his acclaimed biography Lawrence in Arabia, which won the 2013 National Book Critics Circle Award. Anderson is a frequent contributor to the New York Times Magazine, Esquire, GQ, Men's Journal a Vanity Fair. Photo by Robert Clark.


17 gorgeous Alabama mansions lost to history

After writing recently about some of the most beautiful buildings we’ve demolished in Alabama, some readers asked me about homes we’ve lost. I put together this list of 17 once-gorgeous mansions that are no longer standing, the victims of either demolition or fire. After the initial home, the unique Vestavia Estate, the houses are listed in alphabetical order.

1. Vestavia Estate, ca. 1920s, Birmingham

This unusual circular home in Birmingham was inspired by a Roman Temple. Called Vestavia, it was built atop Shades Mountain by Dr. George Ward in the 1920s as a country house. Vestavia was 70 feet high and 186 feet in circumference and featured "20 columns, each 9 feet in circumference, according to Bham Wiki. It was the centerpiece of a 20-acre estate that included gardens and a replica of the Sybil Temple. The area surrounding the site of the estate is now called Vestavia Hills and is marked by Ward's Sybil Temple, which was relocated to a hill along U.S. Highway 31."

(Source: Alabama Department of Archives and History)

Ward, a former mayor of Birmingham, intended his temple replica on the property as his mausoleum but when he died in 1940, a city ordinance prevented his burial on the grounds so he was interred in Elmwood Cemetery. The property was sold to Vestavia Hills Baptist Church in 1958 and for a time acted as part of the church. The unique building was demolished in the late 1960s.

(Source: Historic American Buildings Survey/Library of Congress)

2. Bestor House, 1882, Mobile

The home built in 1882 in Mobile by attorney Daniel Perrin Bestor Jr. was known for its detailed iron work. The brick mansion was located on the northeast corner of Government and Joachim streets. It has a decorative tower on the third floor. It was demolished in the 1930s.

(Source: Historic American Buildings Survey/Library of Congress)

Another view of the Bestor House in Mobile.

(Source: Alabama Department of Archives and History)

3. Crocheron Mansion, 1847, Dallas County

A mansion built by Richard Conner Crocheron was located in Cahaba, the state's first capital city, now known as Old Cahawba Archaeological site. The home, built in 1847, burned in the early 1900s, leaving some of the columns, called the "Crocheron Columns." The columns likely survived because they were made of custom-shaped bricks, according to the Encyclopedia of Alabama, and could not be used to build other structures. Confederate Gen. Nathan Bedford Forest and Union Gen. James Wilson discussed an exchange of prisoners captured during the Battle of Selma at the house, according to ExploreSouthernHistory.com.

The ruins of the Crocheron Mansion in Cahaba.

(Source: Alabama Department of Archives and History)

4. Dicksonia Plantation, c. 1830, Lowndesboro

Construction of Dicksonia Plantation was begun in 1830 by David White. It was built as a one-story home but it was extensively remodeled in 1856 by its second owner Wiley Turner. That home, built of wood, burned in 1939 and was replaced by near-replica thought to be fireproof. The home made of cast-concrete and steel was completed 1940 but it also burned in 1964. See photos of its ruins, which are on private property, at AlabamaHeritage.com.

(Source: Historic American Buildings Survey/Library of Congress)

5. Emanuel Mansion, 1836, Mobile

The home of Jonathan Emanuel was built in 1836 at 251 Government St. in Mobile. According to the Facebook page Historic Photographs of Southwest Alabama, the three-story, Greek Revival-style mansion was designed by James Gallier, “the famous architect who was designing many of Mobile's structures at this time. Architectural scholars consider it to have been one of Alabama's "most outstanding early urban residences.” The home was demolished in 1936. The site is now occupied by the Admiral Semmes Hotel.

(Source: Historic American Buildings Survey/Library of Congress)

Inside Emanuel Mansion in Mobile.

(Source: Photos of Rural Southwest Alabama Facebook page)

6. Forest Hall, 1857, Marion

Forest Hall was built in 1857 in Perry County and burned in the early 1900s. According to the Facebook page Historic Photos of Southwest Alabama, "This grand two-story Italianate style mansion, with a four-story tower, was built by Leonidas N. Walthall. Walthall was the brother-in-law of Edward Kenworthy Carlisle, builder of Kenworthy Hall. It stood near Kenworthy Hall, across the road on a hill on the south side of Alabama Highway 14/Green Street."

(Source: Historic American Buildings Survey/Library of Congress)

7. Forks of Cypress, 1830, Florence

The Greek Revival mansion called Forks of Cypress was designed by architect William Nichols for James and Sally Moore Jackson. Completed in 1830, the home was the only Greek Revival house in Alabama to feature a two-story colonnade around all four sides that was composed of 24 columns. The Lauderdale County home was struck by lightning and burned in 1966. Today, only the columns remain and they are located on private property. The owners allow tours by appointment.

(Source: Carol Highsmith/Library of Congress)

Ruins of Forks of Cypress today.

(Photo of The Grove edited to remove aging/Huntsville-Madison County Public Library)

8. The Grove, c. 1815, Huntsville

The Grove was built in Madison County as early as 1815 by Huntsville founder Leroy Pope, according to historian Henry Turner. The mansion on the corner of Gallatin and Williams streets was the largest home in the state when it was completed. Originally, the estate encompassed 33 acres. It was owned by Gen. Bartley Martin Lowe, a cotton broker and bank president known as the "merchant prince" of Huntsville from 1839-1844. Local historian Jacque Reeves said The Grove was dismantled in the 1920s because "descendants could no longer afford to maintain it and they could not stand to see anyone else live in it." The property was still owned by descendants until the 1970s when it was sold to the Huntsville housing Authority. The Grove was the first residence Gen. Ormsby Mitchell took over when his troops occupied Huntsville during the Civil War.

(Source: Historic American Buildings Survey/Library of Congress)

9. Dr. William Hughes home, 1845, Aliceville

According to the Wikipedia page "List of Plantations in Alabama," this home was built from 1845–50, and featured elaborate plaster work on its interior. The Pickens County home was demolished in 1939. It is shown here in the mid-1930s.


NJ teacher cleared for slavery lesson that allegedly included cotton picking, whip-cracking noises

A New Jersey middle school teacher has been cleared of any improper behavior after a controversial lesson on slavery that allegedly included students pretending to be slaves picking cotton while he made whip-cracking noises in the classroom.

Lawrence Cuneo, an eighth grade social studies teacher at Toms River Intermediate School East, was cleared by district officials late Thursday after an investigation was launched following a student’s social media post, The Ashbury Park Press reported.

“The district has concluded its investigation into a complaint alleging that an Intermediate East 8th-grade social studies lesson on slavery was ‘degrading’ to students,” district spokesman Michael Kenny said. “We have determined that it was not teacher Lawrence Cuneo’s intention to offend his students rather, the purpose of the instruction was that this appalling but nevertheless real facet of our nation’s history more fully resonate with students.”

Kenny added that the administrators are working with Cuneo and other teachers to “revisit the delivery of instruction” to ensure lessons about slavery are mindful of students’ sensitives.

A student took to social media earlier this week to accuse Cuneo of teaching a “degrading” lesson on slavery, claiming that classmates were forced to "pick cotton and lay" on a dirty floor while "pretending we were slaves."

Cuneo, who is also the mayor of Pine Beach, was accused of making “cracking” whip noises and kicking students’ feet, according to the student's post obtained by the outlet.

"It's good to be informed about slavery but making us clean and pick cotton and pretending to wip [sic] us? Are you nuts it's 2020 not 1800 get it right," the student wrote.

Parents and students defended Cuneo in comments to Patch.com and said the description of the lesson was misleading.

Lisa Nuernberg said her child, who was in the class with the student who made the complaint online, said it was described as a “fun learning experience” that “got them up and out of their seats.”

"There was never, ever kicking or any type of violence," Nuernberg said. "It wasn't promoting racism of any sort."

Former students said the classroom activity was optional and sought to teach them about how slaves were held in slave ships.

Treniti DeBruycker, a freshman at Toms River East who had the class with Cuneo last year, said the teacher asked for volunteers who would be comfortable participating in the activity.

"He would tell us this is how they were transported [to America] and he would explain how they were treated," she said. "He brought in freshly picked cotton that had seeds, and had us separate the seeds and sticks and debris. It had to be as clean as possible," DeBruycker said, clarifying that Cuneo would point out if it was not.

Techniques educators have used to teach lessons on slavery have come under scrutiny in recent years for being insensitive, particularly toward students of color.


Lawrence Cotton - History

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County Information
Established January 16, 1821

Named for Captain James Lawrence, Commander of the "Chesapeake", who was mortally wounded in an engagement between that vessel and the British vessel, "Shannon", during the War of 1812.

Present area, or parts of it, formerly included in:

1816–1821 - Crawford
1815–1819 - Edwards
1812–1815 - Gallatin
1812–1815 - Madison
1809–1812 - Randolph
1790–1809 - Knox, Northwest Territory

County History
Source: "Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois", ©1901

LAWRENCE COUNTY - one of the eastern counties in the "southern tier," originally a part of Edwards, but separated from the latter in 1821, and named for Commodore Lawrence. In 1900 its area was 360 square miles, and its population, 16,523. The first English speaking settlers seem to have migrated from the colony at Vincennes, Ind.

St. Francisville, in the southeastern portion, and Allison prairie, in the northeast, were favored by the American pioneers. Settlement was more or less desultory until after the War of 1812. Game was abundant and the soil productive. About a dozen Negro families found homes, in 1819, near Lawrenceville, and a Shaker colony was established about Charlottesville the same year. Among the best remembered pioneers are the families of Lautermann, Chubb, Kincaid, Buchanan and Laus -- the latter having come from South Carolina. Toussaint Dubois, a Frenchman and father of Jesse K. Dubois, State Auditor (1857-64), was a large land proprietor at an early day, and his house was first utilized as a court house. The county is richer in historic associations than in populous towns. Lawrencville, the county-seat, was credited with 865 inhabitants by the census of 1890. St. Francisville and Sumner are flourishing towns.

LAWRENCEVILLE - the county-seat of Lawrence County, is situated on the Embarras River, at the intersection of the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern and the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Railways, 9 miles west of Vincennes, Ind., and 139 miles east of St. Louis. It has a courthouse, four churches, a grade school and two weekly newspapers. Population in 1890 was 865 In 1900 - 1,300 (1903, est.) 1,600.

Townships of Lawrence County


ALLISON TOWNSHIP
(Name changed from Thompson on April 10, 1857)

BRIDGEPORT TOWNSHIP
(Formed from Christy on September 10, 1872)

CHRISTY TOWNSHIP
(Name changed from Hardin on April 10, 1857)

LUKIN TOWNSHIP
(Name changed from Marion (probably 1857)

PETTY TOWNSHIP
(Name changed from Perry to Ohio on April 10, 1857 and from Ohio to Petty (date unknown).


New World Cotton

Among the American species, G. hirsutum was apparently cultivated first in Mexico, and G. barbadense later in Peru. However, a minority of researchers believe, alternatively, that the earliest type of cotton was introduced into Mesoamerica as an already domesticated form of G. barbadense from coastal Ecuador and Peru.

Whichever story ends up to be correct, cotton was one of the first non-food plants domesticated by the prehistoric inhabitants of the Americas. In the Central Andes, especially in the north and central coasts of Peru, cotton was part of a fishing economy and a marine-based lifestyle. People used cotton to make fishing nets and other textiles. Cotton remains have been recovered in many sites on the coast especially in residential middens.

Gossypium Hirsutum(Upland Cotton)

The oldest evidence of Gossypium hirsutum in Mesoamerica comes from the Tehuacan valley and has been dated between 3400 and 2300 BCE. In different caves of the region, archaeologists affiliated to the project of Richard MacNeish found remains of fully domesticated examples of this cotton.

Recent studies have compared bolls and cotton seeds retrieved from excavations in Guila Naquitz Cave, Oaxaca, with living examples of wild and cultivated G. hirsutum punctatum growing along the east coast of Mexico. Additional genetic studies (Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge and Lacape 2014) support the earlier results, indicating that G. hirsutum was likely originally domesticated in the Yucatán Peninsula. Another possible center of domestication for G. hirsutum is the Caribbean.

In different eras and among different Mesoamerican cultures, cotton was a highly demanded good and a precious exchange item. Maya and Aztec merchants traded cotton for other luxury items, and nobles adorned themselves with woven and dyed mantles of the precious material. Aztec kings often offered cotton products to noble visitors as gifts and to army leaders as payment.

Gossypium Barbadense (Pima Cotton)

G. barbadense cultivars are known for their production of high-quality fiber and called variously Pima, Egyptian, or Sea Island cotton. The first clear evidence of domesticated Pima cotton comes from the Ancón-Chillón area of the central coast of Peru. The sites in this area show the domestication process began during the Preceramic period, beginning about 2500 BCE. By 1000 BCE the size and shape of Peruvian cotton bolls were indistinguishable from today's modern cultivars of G. barbadense.

Cotton production began on the coasts but eventually moved inland, facilitated by the construction of canal irrigation. By the Initial Period, sites such as Huaca Prieta contained domestic cotton 1,500 to 1,000 years before pottery and maize cultivation. Unlike in the old world, cotton in Peru was initially part of subsistence practices, used for fishing and hunting nets, as well as textiles, clothing and storage bags.


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