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28. januára 1945


28. januára 1945

Januára 1945

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Východný front

1. baltský front a sovietske námorné sily zajali Memel

Sovietske jednotky vstupujú do Pomoranska

Západný front

Posledná časť výbežku Arden je zničená

Čína

Prvý zásobovací konvoj sa dostáva do Číny po ceste Ledo



Thomas William Selleck sa narodil 29. januára 1945 v Detroite v Michigane so svojou rodinou sa neskôr presťahoval do Los Angeles v Kalifornii. Selleck, talentovaný vysokoškolský športovec, ktorý získal basketbalové štipendium na Univerzite v južnej Kalifornii, sa živil ako model a v 70. rokoch získal malé časti filmov a televíznych projektov, keď sa rozhodol venovať herectvu. Bol predstavený v sérii televíznych seriálov, ktoré zahŕňali Široký svet záhad, Marcus Welby, M.D., Mladí a nepokojní, Charlieho anjeli a Taxi.

Selleck prežil veľkú prestávku, keď bol obsadený do hlavnej úlohy detektívnej série CBS 'aposs Magnum, P.I., v ktorom si zahral pohodového súkromného detektíva. Najlepšie hodnotená šou debutovala v decembri 1980 a stala sa hlavným hitom, ktorý trval osem sezón a získal Selleck Emmy a Zlatý glóbus.


21. apríla 1945 je sobota. Je to 111. deň v roku a v 16. týždni v roku (za predpokladu, že každý týždeň začína v pondelok) alebo v 2. štvrťroku v roku. V tomto mesiaci je 30 dní. 1945 nie je priestupný rok, takže v tomto roku je 365 dní. Krátky formulár na tento dátum používaný v USA je 21. 4. 1945 a takmer všade na svete je to 21. 4. 1945.

Tento web ponúka online kalkulačku dátumu, ktorá vám pomôže nájsť rozdiel v počte dní medzi akýmikoľvek dvoma kalendárnymi dátumami. Jednoducho zadajte dátum začiatku a konca a vypočítajte trvanie akejkoľvek udalosti. Tento nástroj môžete použiť aj na zistenie, koľko dní uplynulo od vašich narodenín, alebo na meranie času do dátumu pôrodu dieťaťa. Pri výpočtoch sa používa gregoriánsky kalendár, ktorý bol vytvorený v roku 1582 a neskôr prijatý v roku 1752 Britániou a východnou časťou dnešných Spojených štátov. Ak chcete dosiahnuť najlepšie výsledky, použite dátum po roku 1752 alebo si overte akékoľvek údaje, ak robíte genealogický výskum. Historické kalendáre majú mnoho variácií, vrátane starorímskeho a juliánskeho. Prestupné roky sa používajú na zosúladenie kalendárneho roka s astronomickým rokom. Ak sa pokúšate zistiť dátum, ktorý nastane o X dní od dnešného dňa, prepnite na Kalkulačka dní odteraz namiesto.


28. januára 1945 - História

Dnes ráno prebiehalo štartové a formačné stretnutie vo výške 18 000 stôp nad severovýchodným Anglickom hladko. Deň bol iskrivo jasný bez oblaku na oblohe, bol sa nám nádherný pohľad, 36 veľkých, lesklých, strieborných vtákov hladko lietajúcich v nádhernej formácii do ranného slnka. Muž bol hrdý na to, že môže byť jeho súčasťou.

Počasie bolo pre nás neuveriteľne dôležité, na Britských ostrovoch mohlo byť také zlé, že bombardovacie operácie sa dali úplne zastaviť. Na jeseň a v zime 1942 bolo počasie také zlé, že 8. AF mohla vykonať iba osem náletov.

Asi tridsať kilometrov západne od Kolína nad Rýnom, vo výške 26 500 stôp, sme odbočili na IP (počiatočný bod bombového útoku), priamo k cieľu, dvere pumy boli otvorené a pripravené na útok. Vždy to bol pohľad vzbudzujúci úžas, ale lietanie po bombovom útoku bolo fyzicky neuveriteľne ťažké. Vo vysokej nadmorskej výške bolo silne naložené lietadlo s dodatočným ťahom otvorených dverí pumovnice strašne ťažké ovládať. Bez akýchkoľvek asistencií pri ovládaní som musel zo všetkých síl bojovať proti kašovitosti a nedostatočnej odozve lietadla.

Napriek tomu, že v pilotnej kabíne bolo 45 stupňov pod nulou (nemali sme žiadne ohrievače), potil som sa tak, že zo snahy letieť v lietadle som musel vypnúť elektrický ohrievač lietajúcich oblekov, bola to najnáročnejšia fyzická práca, akú som kedy mal. musel urobiť. Napriek tomu všetkému som si bol vedomý toho, že toto je vrchol celého školenia, cvičenia a organizácie, ktoré do mňa investovala moja krajina, a chcel som to urobiť len správne.

Keď sme sa pustili do bombového útoku, videli sme cieľovú oblasť pred nami s čiernymi obláčikmi označujúcimi výboje vločiek (zvyčajne 88 mm protilietadlové granáty, ktoré boli vybuchnuté vo vopred nastavenej výške). Pamätám si, že tesne predtým, ako sme zhodili bomby, sme si mysleli,

& lt;

Pamätám si tiež, že súčasne s týmito myšlienkami boli tri neprasklé výbuchy priamo pred nosom lietadla, ani nie päťdesiat metrov od neho. Lietanie cez dym škrupiny mu dodávalo pocit rýchlosti, ktorá mu pri lete vo vysokých výškach chýbala, ale aj keď sa to všetko stalo rýchlo, mal som čas premýšľať,

& quot; Vypaľujú tieto 88-te roky v batériách so štyrmi zbraňami, kde je v diabli štvrtý výbuch? & quot;

Trvalo to dlho, kým sme sa dostali preč z toho malého flakového závanu. Predpokladal som, že som sa mýlil so štyrmi delovými batériami, pretože som štvrtý výbuch nikdy nevidel.

Asi vtedy sme zhodili bomby, zavreli dvere pumy a formácia zabočila doprava, aby sme sa dostali k nášmu kompasu, ktorý mieri späť do Anglicka. So stratou hmotnosti bômb a zatvorením dverí bômb sa lietadlo skutočne cítilo agilné, čo je dobrý pocit sprevádzať naše myšlienky,

„Poďme odtiaľto peklo.“

Myslím, že to boli myšlienky, ale mohli to byť slová o interkomu odo mňa alebo od jedného z posádky. V každom prípade to v našich mysliach vyjadrilo myšlienku najvyššie. Počas tohto manévru Guy vo veži s guľami videl, ako bomby padajú a zasiahli cieľ, a oznámil nám, že naše bomby zasiahli zriaďovacie stanice železníc, zamýšľaný cieľ. V skutočnosti videl z vojny oveľa viac ako ja, rovnako ako ostatní členovia posádky, ktorí sa mali čas rozhliadnuť pri lete do Nemecka a späť z náletu.

Dorazili sme na našu domovskú základňu bez ďalších incidentov, odlepili sme sa od formácie, aby sme vstúpili do vzoru pristávajúcej premávky, a lietadlo sme jemne položili na zasneženú pristávaciu dráhu. Došlo k miernemu bočnému vetru, ktoré sa rozdeľovalo sprava, a keď sme stratili rýchlosť, vietor zachytil zvislú plutvu a otočil lietadlo doprava. Aby som to napravil, zabrzdil som ľavé koleso, keď som to urobil, zistil som výsledky chýbajúceho štvrtého prasknutia flaku, nemal som ľavú brzdu. Hydraulické vedenie bolo prasknuté.

Keď sme vychádzali z pristávacej dráhy, videl som vpredu a napravo plynový tanker a na ňom sedeli niektorí muži a sledovali, ako sa bombardéry vracajú domov. Aby som sa vyhol nákladnému vozidlu, narazil som na pravú brzdu a kormidlo tak silno, ako som len mohol, aby lietadlo prudko odbočilo doprava. Keď sa krídlo prehnalo cez tanker, bol som si vedomý toho, že mužov, ktorí sedeli na vrchu nákladného auta o zlomok sekundy skôr, už nevidieť. Lietadlo sa rozbehlo po zasneženom poli a konečne si odpočinulo v priekope. Keďže som nevedel, aký zlý je únik horľavej hydraulickej kvapaliny, zazvonil som na evakuačný zvonček, ktorý varoval posádku, aby sa dostala von tak rýchlo, ako len mohli. Malý Joe sedel vo svojej rozhlasovej miestnosti a nevedel, čo sa deje, a keď sa spustil alarm, vyľakalo ho to.
„Čo sa deje?“ opýtal sa.

„Nemohli by ste povedať, že Wagner práve spustil lietadlo do priekopy? Ponáhľaj sa z lietadla, “odpovedal Guy.

Keď muži evakuovali lietadlo, bolo počuť, ako Joe zamumlal:

& quot; Pripadalo mi to ako úplne normálne pristátie & quot.


Z knihy „Najmladšia posádka“ od Paula Wagnera
Lagumo Press, Cheyenne, WY, 1997, ISBN 1-878117-18-1

Veterán: Paul Wagner
Pilot, 600. letka
Dátum osobnej histórie: júl 2003 Odoslanie webovej stránky. Výňatok z knihy „Najmladšia posádka“ od Paula Wagnera.
Autor: Paul Wagner
Odoslané na 398. webové stránky: Paul Wagner


Juhoafrická divízia

Úvod
Juhoafrická armáda mala malý predvojnový káder pravidelného personálu, ktorý pochádzal iba z belošského obyvateľstva. Po vypuknutí vojny krajina vytvorila dve pešie divízie, ktoré bojovali v Egypte a Líbyi, kde bola jedna zajatá.

STIAHNUTÉ DOKUMENTY (pdf)

Zostávajúca pešia divízia bola stiahnutá späť do Južnej Afriky po bitke pri El Alameine a rozpustená. V Juhoafrickej republike bola 1. februára 1943 vytvorená nová obrnená divízia pod velením generálmajora W. H. E. POOLE.
Pozri: Generálmajor-Evered-POOLE (PDF)

Divízia integrovala do jednotiek formácie značný počet bielych južných Rodézanov a v Taliansku prevzala pod velenie britskú gardovú brigádu, americkú pracovnú skupinu a dokonca aj indický peší prápor. Vďaka tomu sa táto divízia stala skutočne medzinárodnou formáciou, aj keď ju viedli Juhoafričania.

Divízia prichádza do Talianska
6. juhoafrická obrnená divízia dorazila do Egypta 30. apríla 1943 na výcvik pod velením britských vojsk v Egypte. Divízia potom prešla pod velením III. Zboru v Egypte v období od 1. januára do 14. marca 1944. Egypt opustila 16. apríla 1944 a 21. apríla sa vylodila v Taliansku v Tarante. Divízia sa pripojila k I. kanadskému zboru 28. mája 1944 v predstihu k rieke Tiber. Strávil jeden deň (6. júna) pod velením XIII. Zboru a potom bol stiahnutý do 8. rezervy armády. 20. augusta 1944 sa divízia pripojila k IV. Americkému zboru v boji o vynútenie Trasimenskej línie.

Bitky o gotickú líniu
Ďalšia bitka sa odohrala pri Arezze medzi 4. a 17. júlom a pokračovala v postupe do Florencie. V období od 7. do 31. októbra divízia prešla na velenie 5. americkej armády a potom sa vrátila do IV. Zboru USA. Zúčastnilo sa šiestich pokusov o prelomenie gotickej línie od konca augusta do septembra 1944. Po prestávke v zimných operáciách divízia 15. januára 1945 prešla na konečnú ofenzívu do II. Amerického zboru.

Koniec kampane
V neskorších fázach kampane začala divízia trpieť vážnym nedostatkom posíl. Dôvodom bolo, že vojna vyčerpala krajinu väčšiny oprávnenej bielej dospelej mužskej populácie pripravenej a schopnej slúžiť v zahraničí v armáde. Divízia opustila Taliansko v máji 1945 a vrátila sa do Južnej Afriky.


Priemyselný priemer Dow Jones (DJIA) Graf histórie: Od 1. októbra 1928 do 4. júna 2021


Míľniky pre The
Priemyselný priemer Dow Jones:

DJIA sa zatvára nad hranicu 1 000: 14. novembra 1972 (1 003,16)

DJIA sa blíži k hranici 2 000: 8. januára 1987 (2 002,25)

DJIA sa blíži k hranici 3 000: 17. apríla 1991 (3 004,46)

DJIA sa blíži k hranici 4 000: 23. februára 1995 (4 003,33)

DJIA sa blíži k hranici 5 000: 21. novembra 1995 (5023,55)

DJIA sa blíži k hranici 6 000: 14. októbra 1996 (6 010,00)

DJIACloses Above the 7,000 Mark: 13. február 1997 (7 022,44)

DJIA sa blíži k hranici 8 000: 16. júla 1997 (8038,88)

DJIA sa blíži k hranici 9 000: 6. mája 1998 (9033,23)

DJIA sa blíži k hranici 10 000: 29. marca 1999 (10 006,78)

DJIA sa blíži k hranici 11 000: 3. mája 1999 (11 014,69)

DJIA sa blíži k hranici 12 000: 19. októbra 2006 (12 011,73)

DJIA sa blíži k hranici 13 000: 25. apríla 2007 ( 13,089.89 )

DJIA sa blíži k hranici 14 000: 19. júla 2007 ( 14,000.41 )

DJIA 2009 Bear-Market Low: 9. marca 2009 ( 6,507.04 )

DJIA sa blíži k hranici 15 000: 7. mája 2013 ( 15,056.20)

DJIA sa blíži k hranici 16 000: 21. novembra 2013 ( 16,009.99)

DJIA sa blíži k hranici 17 000: 3. júla 2014 ( 17,068.26)

DJIA sa blíži k hranici 18 000: 23. decembra 2014 ( 18,024.17)

DJIA sa blíži k hranici 19 000: 22. novembra 2016 ( 19,023.87)

DJIA sa blíži k hranici 20 000: 25. januára 2017 ( 20,068.51)

DJIA sa blíži k hranici 21 000: 1. marca 2017 ( 21,115.55 )

DJIA sa blíži k hranici 22 000: 2. augusta 2017 ( 22,016.04 )

DJIA sa zatvára nad hranicu 23 000: 18. októbra 2017 ( 23,157.60 )

DJIA sa zatvára nad hranicu 24 000: 30. novembra 2017 ( 24,272.35 )

DJIA sa blíži k hranici 25 000: 4. januára 2018 ( 25,075.13 )

DJIA sa zatvára nad hranicu 26 000: 17. januára 2018 ( 26,115.65 )

DJIA sa zatvára nad hranicu 27 000: 11. júla 2019 ( 27,088.08 )

DJIA sa blíži k hranici 28 000: 15. novembra 2019 ( 28,004.89 )

DJIA sa blíži k hranici 29 000: 15. januára 2020 ( 29,030.22 )

DJIA sa zatvára nad hranicu 30 000: 24. novembra 2020 ( 30,046.24 )

DJIA sa zatvára nad 31 000 mariek: 7. januára 2021 ( 31,041.13 )

DJIA sa zatvára nad 31 300 mariek: 8. februára 2021 ( 31,385.76 )

DJIA sa zatvára nad 31 400 mariek: 10. februára 2021 ( 31,437.80 )

DJIA sa zatvára nad 31 500 mariek: 16. februára 2021 ( 31,522.75 )

DJIA sa zatvára nad 31 600 mariek: 17. februára 2021 ( 31,613.02 )

DJIA sa zatvára nad 31 900 mariek: 24. februára 2021 ( 31,961.86 )

DJIA sa blíži k hranici 33 000: 17. marca 2021 ( 33,015.37 )

DJIA sa zatvára nad hranicu 34 000: 15. apríla 2021 ( 34,035.99 )

DJIA po celý čas, rekordne blízko: 7. mája 2021 ( 34,777.76 )

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1950 s

1950 - 10. mája: Po ďalších troch rokoch diskusie Kongres prešiel a prezident Harry S. Truman podpísal verejné právo 81-507 a vytvoril Národnú vedeckú nadáciu. Tento zákon ustanovuje Národnú vedeckú radu (NSB) pozostávajúcu z 24 členov na čiastočný úväzok a riaditeľa ako generálneho riaditeľa, ktorých všetkých vymenúva prezident. Prvé stretnutie NSB sa koná 12. decembra.

Členovia Národnej vedeckej rady, júl 1951 (zľava doprava):
Prvý rad: Dr. John W. Davis, Dr. Sophie B. Aberle, Dr. Detlev W. Bronk, Dr. James B. Conant, Dr. Alan T. Waterman, Dr. Gerty T. Cori, Rev. Patrick H. Yancey
Stojanový rad: Dr. Marston Morse, Dr. E. C. Stakman, Dr. Chester I. Barnard, Dr. Paul M. Gross, Dr. Frederick A. Middlebush, Dr. Joseph C. Morris, Dr. James A. Reyniers, Dr. O.W. Hyman, Dr. Lee A. DuBridge, Dr. Robert F. Loeb, Dr. Robert P. Barnes, Dr. George D. Humphrey, Dr. A.A. Potter, pán Charles Dollard.

Kredit: Zbierka NSF. Stiahnite si verziu obrázku JPG vo vysokom rozlíšení. (1,38 MB)

1951 - marec: Alan T. Waterman, vedúci vedec úradu námorného výskumu, je prezidentom Trumanom nominovaný za prvého riaditeľa NSF. (Životopis vodníka) Poskytuje sa mu počiatočná čiastka 225 000 dolárov.

1952 - 1. február: Národná vedecká rada schvaľuje prvých 28 výskumných grantov, ktoré má udeliť NSF. Prvý grant za 10 300 dolárov putuje na Inštitút pre výskum rakoviny. V prvom roku je udelených celkom 97 výskumných grantov. Medzi ocenenými je aj Max Delbruck (Nobelova cena, 1969).

1952 - apríl: Udeľujú sa prvé preddoktorandské a postdoktorandské štipendiá. Medzi príjemcami sú sociobiológ Edward O. Wilson (Pulitzerova cena, 1979 a 1991) a fyzik Burton Richter (Nobelova cena, 1976). (Trieda National Science Foundation z roku 1952)

1953 - máj: NSF je sponzorom konferencie o posilnení vysokoškolského vyučovania fyziky na bakalárskom stupni. NSF sa odporúča rozšíriť možnosti výskumu pre fakulty fakúlt a podporovať vysokoškolský výskum, ktorý bude vykonávať v nasledujúcich rokoch.

1954 - júl -august: V Seattli, Washington, sa koná experimentálny letný program pre stredoškolských učiteľov matematiky. Tým sa začína pokračujúca podpora NSF vzdelávacích aktivít zameraných na materskú školu prostredníctvom stredoškolských učiteľských komunít.

1955: NSF dostáva svoje prvé rozpočtové prostriedky na podporu Medzinárodného geofyzikálneho roku (IGY). Na žiadosť Národnej rady pre výskum je NSF zodpovedný za získavanie a správu vládnych financií pre americkú účasť na celosvetovom programe vedeckého výskumu. (Veda v studenej vojne: Odkaz medzinárodného geofyzikálneho roku - nie je k dispozícii online)

Prvé plánovacie granty sa udeľujú na zriadenie národných rádiových a optických astronomických observatórií.

1956: Začína sa výstavba Národného rádioastronomického observatória v Green Bank, W.Va. Hvezdáreň bude dokončená v roku 1962.

300-stopový tranzitný rádioteleskop v Národnom rádioastronomickom observatóriu v Green Bank, W.Va. Dokončený v septembri 1962, bol v tej dobe najväčším pohyblivým rádioteleskopom na svete.

Kredit: Zbierka NSF. Stiahnite si verziu obrázku JPG vo vysokom rozlíšení. (188 KB)

Prvé granty NSF sa udeľujú na podporu výpočtových stredísk a výskumu v oblasti numerickej analýzy. O tri roky neskôr sa vytvára samostatný rozpočet na granty, ktoré akademickým inštitúciám umožnia získať hlavné počítačové vybavenie.

1957 - 22. januára: Stanica južného pólu je oficiálne zasvätená. USA majú v Antarktíde zriadených šesť vedeckých staníc, financovanie poskytuje NSF.

1957 - 1. júl: IGY oficiálne začína.

1957 - 1. augusta: Je vytvorený Program sociálneho výskumu. NSF podporuje antropológiu, ekonómiu, sociológiu a históriu a filozofiu vedy.

1957 - 4. október: Sovietsky zväz vypúšťa na obežnú dráhu Sputnik I, prvý satelit vyrobený ľuďmi. V Spojených štátoch to spustí národné sebahodnotenie vedeckého výskumu a vzdelávania. Kongres reaguje viac ako zdvojnásobením rozpočtových prostriedkov NSF na 134 miliónov dolárov na dvanásť mesiacov od 1. júla 1958. Financovanie vzdelávania sa viac ako strojnásobuje.

1958 - 11. júla: NSF je zodpovedná za zriadenie výskumného programu pre úpravu počasia.

1958 - 4. augusta: Americký antarktický výskumný program (USAP) je zriadený pri NSF a je zodpovedný za koordináciu a riadenie amerického vedeckého programu v Antarktíde.

1958 - 31. december: IGY oficiálne končí.

1959 - 13. marca: Prezident Dwight D. Eisenhower podpisuje výkonné nariadenie 10807, ktoré dáva NSF výrazne väčšiu zodpovednosť za jednoduchšie sprístupnenie vedeckých informácií vedcom. Na plnenie nových povinností je zriadený Úrad vedy informácií NSF.

1959 - 25. augusta: Prezident Eisenhower podpisuje verejné právo 86-209, ktorým sa ustanovuje Národná medaila vedy.


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Deň 3:
19. prezident: RUTHERFORD BIRCHARD HAYES, strana: republikán kandidoval proti demokratovi Samuelovi Jonesovi Tildenovi. Podávané: 1877 - 1881
Narodený: 4. októbra 1822 v Delaware v štáte Ohio Rutherfordovi Hayesovi ml. A Sophii Birchardovej.
Hayes pôsobil v armádnej únii a v Snemovni reprezentantov predtým, ako sa ujal predsedníctva. Historici považujú jeho predsedníctvo za formálny koniec rekonštrukcie, pretože ukončil federálne snahy priniesť na juhu rasovú rovnosť.
Zomrel: 17. januára 1893 vo Fremonte, Ohio.

Tí, ktorí sú pomenovaní pre RUTHERFORD B. HAYES:
• Rutherford B. Pharoah Hayes Pack, nar. 2. marca 1877 Wayne Co, WV. Syn Andersona Packa a Caroline Bartramovej.
• Rutherford B. „Hayes“ Smith, nar. 7. februára 1874 Floyd Co, KY. Vydatá Veľkonočná Ann Aldridge. Pochovaný: cintorín Brewer-Fitzpatrick, Marrowbone Creek.

20. prezident: JAMES ABRAM GARFIELD, strana: republikán. Slúžil: marec 1881 - september 1881 ** Zavraždený
Narodený: 19. novembra 1831 v Moreland Hills v štáte Ohio Abramovi Garfieldovi a Elize
Garfield bol proti odlúčeniu konfederácie, slúžil ako generálmajor v armáde Únie počas americkej občianskej vojny a bojoval v bitkách pri Middle Creek, Shiloh a Chickamauga.
2. júla 1881 sklamaný a klamlivý uchádzač o kanceláriu Charles J. Guiteau zastrelil Garfielda na železničnej stanici Baltimore a Potomac vo Washingtone DC. Rana nebola bezprostredne smrteľná, ale 19. septembra 1881 zomrel na infekciu spôsobenú jeho lekári. Guiteaua popravili za vraždu Garfielda v júni 1882.
Zomrel: 19. septembra 1881 v Elberone, N.J.

Tí, ktorí sú vymenovaní za JAMESA A. GARFIELDA:
• James Abram Hensley, nar. 12. september 1880 Oppy, Martin Co, KY. Ženatý Marinda Stepp.
• Garfield Cassady, nar. 5. marca 1881, Inez, KY. Pochovaný: cintorín Cassady, Inez, KY
• Garfield Johnson, nar. 1881 KY. Syn Billa a Rebeccy Johnsonových.
• Garfield Mills, nar. 1881, KY. Syn Johna Millsa a Elizabeth Jarrell
• Garfield Young, nar. 1881 Martin Co, KY. Ženatý Edna Evans, dcéra Williama Andersona Evansa (pochovaný: cintorín Evans, Vinson Branch, Marrowbone) a Elizabeth Ferrell.

21. prezident: CHESTER ALAN ARTHUR, strana: republikán. Podávané: 1881 - 1885
Narodený: 5. októbra 1829 vo Fairmonte vo Vermonte Williamovi Arthurovi a Malvina Stone. Prezidentským predsedom sa stal po smrti prezidenta Jamesa A. Garfielda v septembri 1881, dva mesiace po tom, čo Garfielda zastrelil atentátnik.
Novinár Alexander McClure napísal: „Žiadny človek nevstúpil do prezidentského úradu tak hlboko a široko nedôverčivo ako Chester Alan Arthur a nikto neodišiel do dôchodku. všeobecnejšie rešpektovaný, rovnako ako politickým priateľom a nepriateľom. & quot
Zomrel: 18. novembra 1886 v New Yorku, NY

Tí, ktorí sú pomenovaní za CHESTER ALAN ARTHUR:
• Chester Arthur Marcum, nar. 28. novembra 1892 Lawrence Co, KY. Manžel Rebeccy Varneyovej. Rebecca bola sestrou Leny Varneyovej, 2. manželky Lafayette Heraldovej, a Tennie Varneyovej, 2. manželky Pyrrha „Binghama“ Meade.

22. prezident: GROVER CLEVELAND, strana: demokrat Obslúžené: 1885 - 1889
Narodený: 18. marca 1837 v Caldwell, New Jersey, Richardovi Falleymu Clevelandovi a Ann Nealovej Počas občianskej vojny bol draftovaný, ale najal si náhradníka, aby sa mohol starať o svoju matku (jeho otec zomrel v roku 1853) - celkom zákonný postup, ale taký, ktorý by ho v budúcnosti vystavil politickým útokom.
Zomrel: 24. júna 1908 Princeton, N.J.

Tí, ktorí sú pomenovaní pre GROVER CLEVELAND:
• Grover Cleveland Brewer, nar. 25. september 1894 Mingo Co, WV. Pochovaný: Pivovarský cintorín Grover Cleveland, ľavá vidlica Marrowbone Creek.
• Grover Cleveland Gillman, nar. 18. september 1892 Kermit, Mingo Co, WV. Pochovaný: cintorín Perry Point.
• Môj starý otec Grover Cleveland Marcum, nar. 17. mája 1888 Bullcreek/Dicy, Wayne Co, WV. Môj starý otec bol republikán a nechcel byť menovaný za demokrata, ale pravdepodobne to robila jeho matka Mahala. Každopádne nikdy nechcel chlapca, ktorý by mu bol menovaný, ale pri poslednom dieťati sa môj otec stal Grover Cleveland Jr.
• Grover Cleveland Meade, nar. 1886- syn Lewisa Meadeho a Evaline Spauldingovej
• Grover Cleveland Richmond, nar. 6. novembra 1892 Martin Co, KY. Zakladateľ obchodu s potravinami Richmond a majiteľ hlavného divadla v Kermite. Pochovaný: Martin Co, KY.
• Grover Cleveland Petržlen, nar. 1885. Pochovaný: cintorín Low Gap, Crum
• Grover Cleveland Petržlen, nar. 1899. Pochovaný: cintorín Williamson, Jennies Creek

23. prezident: BENJAMIN HARRISON, strana: republikán, slúžené: 1889 - 1893.
Narodený: 20. augusta 1833 v North Bende, Ohio, Johnovi Scottovi Harrisonovi a Elizabeth Irwinovej a vnukovi 9. prezidenta Williama H. ​​Harrisona 1881 = Harrison zvolený do Senátu USA. Bol posledným generálom občianskej vojny, ktorý slúžil ako prezident.
Počas americkej občianskej vojny slúžil v armáde odboru ako plukovník a Senát USA ho potvrdil ako brevetského brigádneho generála dobrovoľníkov v roku 1865. Harrison neúspešne kandidoval na guvernéra štátu Indiana v roku 1876. Valné zhromaždenie štátu Indiana zvolilo Harrisona za šesťročné funkčné obdobie v americkom senáte, kde pôsobil v rokoch 1881 až 1887.
Zomrel: 13. marca 1901 v Indianapolis, Indiana.

Tí, ktorí sú pomenovaní pre BENJAMIN HARRISON:
• Benjamin Harrison Fitzpatrick, nar. 13. marca 1870 Wayne Co, WV. Pochovaný: cintorín Stepp, Stepptown
• Benjamin Harrison Dingess, nar. 10. mája 1884 WV. Ženatý Fannie Lee Kirk. Pochovaný cintorín Murphy.
• Benjamin Harrison „Bennie“ Salmons, nar. 6. júla 1894 Crum, Wayne Co, WV. Pochovaný cintorín Perry Point.

24. prezident: GROVER CLEVELAND, strana: demokrat Obslúžené: 1893 - 1897
Bol tiež 22. prezidentom a jediným prezidentom, ktorý kedy slúžil dve nesúvislé funkčné obdobia.
(Jeho informácie nájdete v predchádzajúcom príspevku)

25. prezident: WILLIAM McKINLEY, strana: republikán. Slúžené: 1897 - 1901 ** Zavraždený
Narodený: 29. januára 1843 v Niles v štáte Ohio Williamovi McKinleymu staršiemu a Nancy Allison.
McKinley bol prezidentom počas španielsko -americkej vojny v roku 1898, zvýšil ochranné clá na podporu amerického priemyslu a odmietol expanzívnu menovú politiku bezplatného striebra, čím udržal národ na zlatom štandarde. S pomocou svojho blízkeho poradcu MARKA HANNY zaistil republikánsku nomináciu na prezidenta v roku 1896 uprostred hlbokej ekonomickej krízy. Porazil svojho demokratického rivala WILLIAMA JENNINGA BRYANA po kampani na verande, v ktorej obhajoval & quotsound money & quot; (zlatý štandard, pokiaľ ho medzinárodná dohoda nezmení) a sľúbil, že vysoké clá obnovia prosperitu.
Zomrel: 14. septembra 1901 v Buffale v New Yorku Po jeho vražde prevzal úrad jeho viceprezident Theodore Roosevelt.

Tí, ktorí sú pomenovaní po WILLIAMOVI McKINLEYOVI:
• William McKinley Kirk, nar. 29. október 1896 Inez, Martin Co, KY. Pochovaný: Murphyho cintorín, East Kermit.
• McKinley Lowe, nar. 1897 Wayne Co, WV. Pochovaný: cintorín Perry Point, Jennie’s Creek
• William McKinley Marcum, nar. 2. apríla 1928 Wayne Co, WV. Pochovaný: cintorín Andersona Marcuma, Bullcreek
• McKinley Muncy Sr., nar. 20. októbra 1896 WV. Pochovaný: Cintorín Muncy, Sivý orol

Tí, ktorí sú pomenovaní za WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN:
• William Jennings Brewer, nar. 1903 Anthonymu Waynovi Brewerovi a Sarah Ann Ferrell. Pochovaný: cintorín A. W. Brewera, pobočka Antney, Marrowbone Creek.
• William Jennings Brewer, nar. 1. júl 1908 WV. Syn Mitchella Brewera a Lydie Aldridge.
• William Jennings Bryant Marcum, nar. 20. júna 1909 Crum, Wayne Co, WV. Manžel Bertha Veľkonočný Cox.

26. prezident: THEODORE ROOSEVELT, strana: republikán, slúžené: 1901 - 1909
A.K.A. Teddie alebo T.R. Narodený: 27. októbra 1858 New York, New York, Theodora Roosevelta staršieho a Marthu Bulloch
V roku 1880 sa oženil s Alice Hathaway Lee, s ktorou mal jednu dcéru Alice. Po smrti svojej prvej manželky sa v roku 1886 oženil s Edith Kermit Carow, s ktorou žil po zvyšok svojho života na kopci Sagamore Hill, na panstve neďaleko Oyster Bay, Long Island, New York. Mali päť detí: Theodore, Jr., Kermit, Ethel, Archibald a Quentin.
V roku 1901 premenoval výkonné sídlo na Biely dom.
V roku 1906 získal Nobelovu cenu za mier za sprostredkovanie ukončenia rusko-japonskej vojny (1904–05) a zabezpečil trasu a začal s výstavbou Panamského prieplavu (1904–14).
Zomrel: 6. januára 1919 v Oyster Bay, NY

Tí, ktorí sú pomenovaní pre THEODORE ROOSEVELT:
• Roosevelt Messer, nar. 1903. Pochovaný: Andersonov cintorín
• Roosevelt Newsome, nar. 1922

27. prezident: WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT, strana: republikán. Podávané: 1909 - 1913
Narodený: 15. septembra 1857 v Cincinnatti v štáte Ohio Alphonso Taftovi a Louise Torreyovej. Vďaka pomoci Roosevelta mal Taft malý odpor voči republikánskej nominácii na prezidenta v roku 1908 a v novembrových voľbách ľahko porazil Williama Jenningsa Bryana za prezidenta. V Bielom dome sa viac ako na európske záležitosti zameral na východnú Áziu a opakovane zasahoval, aby podporil alebo odstránil latinskoamerické vlády.
V roku 1921 prezident Warren G. Harding vymenoval Tafta za hlavného sudcu, pričom túto funkciu zastával až mesiac pred svojou smrťou.
Zomrel: 8. marca 1930 vo Washingtone, D.C.

Tí, ktorí sú pomenovaní pre WILLIAM HOWARD TAFT:
• William Taft „Bill“ Kress, nar. 15. augusta 1908 v Chilhowie, Smyth Co, VA.
• William Taft Spaulding, nar. 1908 WV. Syn Johna R. Spauldinga a Pricy Jude.

28. predseda: THOMAS WOODROW WILSON, strana: Demokratická. Podávané: 1913 - 1921
Narodený: 28. decembra 1856 v Stauntone vo Virgínii Josephovi Rugglesovi Wilsonovi a Jessie Janet Woodrowovej.
Ako prezident Wilson zmenil národnú hospodársku politiku a viedol Spojené štáty k prvej svetovej vojne v roku 1917. Bol vedúcim architektom Spoločnosti národov a jeho progresívny postoj k zahraničnej politike bol známy ako Wilsoniánstvo.
Jeho prvou hlavnou prioritou bol zákon o príjmoch z roku 1913, ktorý znížil clá a začal modernú daň z príjmu.
Zomrel: 3. februára 1924 vo Washingtone, D.C.

Tí, ktorí sú vymenovaní za WOODROW WILSON:
• Woodrow Wilson Maynard, nar. 1922, syn Ira Maynarda a Jettie Hensleyovej. Pochovaný: Newsome Ridge.
• Woodrow Wilson Peake, nar. 1915 WV. Syn Calvin Arthur Peake a Hazel Stepp
• Woodrow Wilson Stepp, nar. 19. marca 1922 Mingo Co, WV. Zomrel 1975 vo svojom dome v Kermite.

29. prezident: WARREN GAMELIEL HARDING, strana: republikán. Slúžil: 1921 - 1923*Zomrel v kancelárii
A.K.A. „Medvedík“. Narodený: 2. novembra 1865 v Blooming Grove v štáte Ohio Georgovi Tryonovi Hardingovi a Phoebe Elizabeth Dickerson.
Zvíťazil v prevahe nad demokratom Jamesom M. Coxom a uväznil kandidáta Socialistickej strany Eugena Debsa, aby sa stal prvým sediacim senátorom zvoleným za prezidenta.
Zomrel: 2. augusta 1923 v San Franciscu v Kalifornii. Harding zomrel na infarkt v San Franciscu počas západného turné a jeho nástupcom sa stal viceprezident Calvin Coolidge. Členovia jeho kabinetu Albert B. Fall (minister vnútra) a Harry Daugherty (generálny prokurátor) boli neskôr súdení za korupciu vo funkcii. Fall bol odsúdený, hoci Daugherty nie. Tieto a ďalšie škandály značne poškodili Hardingovu posmrtnú povesť a je všeobecne považovaný za jedného z najhorších prezidentov v histórii USA.

Tí, ktorí sú pomenovaní pre WARREN G. HARDING:
• Warren Harding Marcum, nar. 30. októbra 1930 v Pike Co, KY. Zakopaný Andersonov cintorín, Jennie’s Creek
• Warren Harden Marcum, nar. 1. novembra 1959 Maryland. Pomenovaný po svojom strýkovi.

30. prezident: CALVIN COOLIDGE, strana: republikán. Podávané: 1923 - 1929
A.K.A. John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. Narodený: 4. júla 1872 v Plymouthe Notch vo Vermonte Johnovi Calvinovi Coolidgeovi staršiemu a Victoria Josephine Moor.
Hoci bol Coolidge pomenovaný po svojom otcovi Johnovi, od raného detstva ho oslovovalo jeho stredné meno Calvin. Jeho stredné meno bolo vybrané na počesť Jána Kalvína, považovaného za zakladateľa kongregačnej cirkvi, v ktorej bol vychovaný Coolidge a zostal aktívny po celý svoj život.
Republikánsky právnik z Nového Anglicka, narodený vo Vermonte, Coolidge sa vypracoval po rebríčku štátnej politiky štátu Massachusetts a nakoniec sa stal guvernérom štátu Massachusetts. Jeho reakcia na bostonský policajný štrajk z roku 1919 ho dostala do centra pozornosti celého sveta a dala mu povesť muža rozhodného činu. V nasledujúcom roku bol zvolený za 29. viceprezidenta Spojených štátov a prezidentským úradom sa stal po náhlej smrti Warrena G. Hardinga v roku 1923. Zvolený sám v roku 1924 získal povesť malého vládny konzervatívec a tiež ako muž, ktorý povedal veľmi málo a mal dosť suchý zmysel pre humor.
Zomrel: 5. januára 1933 v Northamptone, Massachusetts.

Tí, ktorí sú pomenovaní pre CALVIN COOLIDGE:
• Calvin Coolidge Cassady, nar. 1. september 1924 Mingo Co, WV. Pochovaný: Murphyho cintorín, East Kermit.
• Calvin Coolidge Copley, nar. ?, syn Monroe Copleyho a Luetisha Messera
• Coolidge Muncy, nar. 18. februára 1932. Pochovaný: cintorín Jacoba Messera, Jennie’s Creek.
• Calvin Coolidge Dillon, nar. 1924. Pochovaný: cintorín Baisden-Ferguson, Jennie’s Creek
• Coolidge Dillon- syn Any Dillon a Spicie Belle Spaulding. Pochovaný: Cintorín Wash Dillon, Jennies Creek

Those named for JOHN CALVIN (1509-1564):
• John Calvin Brewer Sr., b. 1831 VA. Son of Isaac Brewer & Elizabeth Meade. Buried Brewer-Fitzpatrick Cemetery, forks of Marrowbone.
• John Calvin Chaffins, b. March 12, 1881 Logan Co, WV. Buried possibly at Dearnell Cemetery, Stonecoal.

31st President: HERBERT CLARK HOOVER, Party: Republican. Served: 1929 – 1933
Born: Aug 10, 1874 in West Branch, Iowa to Jesse Hoover and Hulda Randall Minthorn.
When the U.S. entered the war, President Woodrow Wilson appointed Hoover to lead the Food Administration, and Hoover became known as the country's "food czar". He was influential in the development of air travel and radio. He led the federal response to the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927. Hoover won the Republican nomination in the 1928 presidential election, and decisively defeated the Democratic candidate, Al Smith. The stock market crashed shortly after Hoover took office, and the Great Depression became the central issue of his presidency.
Died: Oct 20, 1964 New York, N.Y.

Those named for HERBERT CLARK HOOVER:
• Cleo Hoover Maynard, b. May 30, 1927 WV. Buried: Newsome Ridge Cemetery.

32nd President: FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT, Party: Democrat Served: 1933 – 1945*Died in Office.
A.K.A. FDR. Born: Jan 30, 1882 in Hyde Park, N.Y. to James and Sara Delano Roosevelt. He served the longest of any president, 12 years before dying in office. The only president elected to the office four times, Roosevelt led the United States through two of the greatest crises of the 20th century: the Great Depression and World War II. He was also the first president to appear on television in 1939.
Died: April 12, 1945 in Warm Springs, Georgia.

Those named for FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT:
• Forrest Roosevelt Evans, b. 1933, d. 2016

Marrowbone & Jennies Creek, Kermit, WV Cemeteries & History

Dandridge residence in Kermit damaged by fire Williamson Daily News 12 Jul 1961

Marrowbone & Jennies Creek, Kermit, WV Cemeteries & History

Mingo Street during the flood of April 1977, looking towards Meade Street. The white building on the left was storage for Richmond-Akers Hardware Co., then the Kermit Cash Store owned by George Dewey and Callie (Harmon) Preece and the Liquor Store with an advertisement for Black Draught laxative painted on the side.

Today, the lots where the Richmond-Akers Hardware storage building, Kermit Cash Store and the Liquor Store once stood are vacant. The telephone company building currently still stands on the opposite side of Meade Street.

Photo courtesy of Susan Ryan. The recreated picture was taken in March 2021.

You can read more about the history of the Kermit Cash Store, and George and Callie here: https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=323829308278598&id=107115773283287

Marrowbone & Jennies Creek, Kermit, WV Cemeteries & History

This week in honor of Memorial Day, each day we will be sharing a post about the popularity of naming after key figures in history. This is our last day.

This entry came to me as one I should also include as many of our God fearing family named their children after the bible. I was named for my grandmother, Rhoda (Salmons) Marcum Dotson, and there are upteen Rhoda's in this area . . . but it originated from the Bible.

Day 4:
Those named for ADAM:
• Adam Crum, b. 1756 Augusta Co, VA. The first to bring in the Crum name to this part of WV.
• Adam Gayheart, b. 1925 Logan Co, WV. Married Rebecca Damron. Buried: Vinson Cemetery, Vinson Branch, Marrowbone Creek

Those named for AARON:
• Adam Brewer, b. 1834 Logan Co, WV. Buried: Brewer-Fitzpatrick Cemetery, forks of Marrowbone
• Aaron Fain, b. 1873 Crum, Wayne Co, WV. Buried: Brewer-Fitzpatrick Cemetery, forks of Marrowbone
• Aaron Fluty, b. 1826 Lawrence Co, KY. Brother to Mahala Fluty that married Joshua Marcum. Mahala and Joshua Marcum are buried at top of Williamson Cemetery, mouth of Mudlick, Jennie’s Creek
• Aaron Hensley, b. 1829 VA. Married Martha “Patsy” Ball. Lived at Long Branch, Martin Co, KY
• Aaron Marcum, b. 1849 Wayne Co, WV. Son of Joshua and Mahala Fluty Marcum.
• Aaron Stepp, b. 1827 Pike Co, KY. Whose son’s, Laban T. Stepp, daughters are buried at the Brewer Cemetery, mouth of Marrowbone Creek.
• Aaron Henry Cornes, b. 1864 Clay Co, WV. Buried: Herald-Corns Cemetery, Jennie’s Creek

Those named for DAVID:
• David C. Brewer, b. 1860 Logan Co, VA. Buried: Dave Brewer Cemetery, Marrowbone Creek
• David Crum, b. 1807. Son of Adam Crum and Barbara Horn.
• David Hodge, b. 1857 VA. Son of John Hodge and Fidelia Clark.
• David May, b. abt 1859 Pike Co, KY. Married Causby Dempsey.
• David Sartin, b. 1904 Kermit. Buried: Brewer-Fitzpatrick Cemetery, forks of Marrowbone Creek
• Captain David Wilkinson, b. 1837 Wythe Co, VA. Married Rebecca Chafin, daughter of William Chafin Sr. and Sarah Deskins. Rebecca is buried Vinson Cemetery, Vinson Branch, Marrowbone Creek.

Those named for GIDEON:
• Gideon Parsley Sr., b. 1877 WV. Buried: Williamson Cemetery, mouth of Mudlick, Jennie’s Creek
• Gideon D. Bailey, b. 1885 WV. Son of James D. Bailey and Malinda Marcum.
• Gideon D. Hampton, b. 1844. Son of Henry Cary Hampton Jr. and Alafair Watts.
• Gideon D. Marcum, b. 1890 Wayne Co, WV. Son of General Lee Marcum who is buried at Williamson Cemetery, mouth of Mudlick, Jennie’s Creek.
• Gideon D. Messer, b. 1870 Logan Co, WV. Married Martha Ann Block. Both buried at Marcum-Johnson Cemetery, Cotton Hill, Wayne Co, WV
• Gideon Dee Marcum, b. 1825, KY. Married Jane Hampton. Son of Moses Marcum and Eda Bryant.

Those named for ISAAC:
• Isaac Brewer Sr., b. 1789 VA. Married Elizabeth Meade. Early settler of Marrowbone Creek, having owned land here before 1839
• Isaac Collins, brother of Susanna Collins, first wife of Moses D. Marcum. They divorced and Moses later married Margaret Lucy Justice.
• Isaac Ferrell, b. 1871 Logan Co, WV. Son of Moses Ferrell and Matilda Brewer.
• Isaac Fitzpatrick, b. 1905 WV. Son of William Sanford Fitch and Amanda Meade.
• Isaac Marcum, b. 1844 VA. Married Rebecca Brewer.
• Isaac Newsome, b. 1865 Marrowbone Creek, WV. Son of Harmon Newsome and Lydia Brewer.
• Isaac Harmon Hannah Sr., b. 1845 Floyd Co, KY. Buried: Hannah Cemetery, Big Laurel Branch, Marrowbone Creek

Those named for JACOB:
• Jacob “Jingo Jake” Marcum, b. 1780 Lee Co, VA. Married Rhoda Saddler. Oldest son of Josiah Marcum. Buried: Marcum Cemetery, Tickridge, Wayne Co, WV.
• Jacob Baach, father of Isaiah Lee Baach, b. 1872. Lee Baach was a teacher and buried at Brewer-Fitzpatrick Cemetery, forks of Marrowbone Creek
• Jacob Collins, b. 1824 N.C. Married Elizabeth Spaulding. Buried: Anderson Cemetery, Jennie’s Creek
• Jacob Spaulding, b. 1829 KY. Son of Fleming Spaulding and Polly Akers

Those named for JOSIAH:
• Josiah Marcum, b. 1759 Chesterfield Co, VA. First Marcum to settle in Cabell Co, VA, and thus began the prolific family of Marcum. Buried on Jennie’s Creek in a lone grave.
• Josiah Thomas Wiles, b. 1846, Mouth of Wilson, Ashe Co, N.C. Buried: Wiles Cemetery, left fork of Marrowbone

Those named for LABAN:
• Laban T. Stepp, b. 1862 KY. His 3 children, William Harlan, Hazel and Maude are all buried at the Brewer Cemetery, mouth of Marrowbone Creek.

Those named for LAZARUS:
• Lazarus Dameron, b. 1765 VA. He had children both by Jane Jarrell, and wife Nancy Elizabeth Short. He brought both the Jarrell and Dameron families to this portion of the country.
• Lazarus Marcum, b. 1869 WV. Married Polly Williamson. Both are buried Marcum Cemetery, Tickridge
• Lazarus Salmons, b. 1876 KY. Married Nancy Jane Mills. Both buried Salmons-Marcum Cemetery, left fork of Bull Creek
• Lazarus “Lace” V. Waller, b. 1872 Rock Camp, Ohio. Married Melvina Muncy. Both buried Anderson Cemetery, Jennie’s Creek

Those named for MOSES:
• Moses Baisden, b. 1892 Kermit, WV. Married Jane Vanderpool. They are buried at Moses Baisden Cemetery, Antney Branch, Marrowbone Creek
• Moses Block, b. 1896 Mingo Co, WV. Buried: Lillian Brewer Parsley Cemetery, Left for of Marrowbone
• Moses Chaffins, b. 1864 KY. Buried: Murphy Cemetery, East Kermit.
• Moses Ferrell, b. 1829 WV. Minister who married couples on Marrowbone Creek. Buried: Moses Ferrell Cemetery, Marrowbone Creek.
• Moses Marcum, b. 1785 N.C. Son of Josiah Marcum and Eda McDonald.
• Moses Parsley I, b. 1752 Pittsylvania Co, VA. Married Obedience Ryburn.

Those named for SOLOMON:
• Solomon Baisden, married Mary Ann Chafin. Son of John Smith Baisden and Rhoda Branham.
• Solomon James, b. 1873 Martin Co, KY. Son of John James and Rhoda Brewer. Buried at Brewer Cemetery, mouth of Marrowbone Creek
• Solomon Lackey, b. 1840 WV. Married Pricy Lester. Buried: Lackey Cemetery, Marrowbone Ridge
• Solomon S. Marcum, b. 1858 WV. Married Pearlina Pack. Son of Moses Denver Marcum and Susanna Collins.
• Solomon Franklin Fuller, b. 1879 KY. Married Violet Stafford. Possibly buried in Fuller Cemetery on Jennie’s Creek.
• Solomon Xerxes Marcum, b. 1887 Wayne Co, WV. Son of Rev. Joseph Marcum Marcum and Mary Marcum. Buried: Brewer Cemetery, Westwood, Ashland, KY. (I was told by his grandson that he was named for 2 Kings in the Bible.

Then you had some couples/ladies that were adventurous in naming their sons. Maybe they were readers of olden tales and fell in love with the names of their characters:

Those named for CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS:
• John Columbus Chafin, b & d 1944. Buried: Solon Chafin Cemetery, Marrowbone Creek
• Christopher Columbus Chaffin, b. 1891. Buried: Chaffin Cemetery, Hode, Martin County, KY
• Columbus Evans, b. Feb 6, 1892. Buried: Brewer-Fitzpatrick Cemetery, Forks of Marrowbone
• Christopher Columbus Messer, b. Nov 29, 1913. Buried: Perry Point Cemetery, Jennie’s Creek
• Christopher Columbus Murphy, b. Sep 20, 1884 Pike Co, Ky. Buried: Murphy Cemetery, East Kermit
• Christopher Columbus Preece, b. Sep 24, 1876 Martin Co, KY. Buried: Stepp Cemetery, Kermit.
• Christopher Columbus Spaulding, b. May 10, 1905 Wayne Co, WV. Buried: Brewer-Fitzpatrick Cemetery

Those named after the Marquis de LAFAYETTE:
• Lafayette Block, b. Nov 4, 1886 WV. Buried Brewer-Fitzpatrick Cemetery.
• Lafayette F. Herald, b. May 6, 1866 Tick Ridge, Wayne Co, WV. Buried: Herald-Corns Cemetery, Jennie’s Creek
• Lafayette Fred Marcum, b. Jan. 1, 1861 Wayne Co, WV. Buried: Anderson Cemetery
• Lafayette F. “Lafie” Crum, b. May 20, 1881 Martin Co, KY. Buried: Murphy Cemetery
• Lafayette F. Salmons, b. Sept 8, 1874 Dunlow, Wayne Co, WV. Buried: Alleghany Memorial Park, VA

There were local dignitaries that had such influence that places were named for them:
ANTHONY WAYNE: (January 1, 1745 – December 15, 1796) was an American soldier, officer and statesman of Irish descent. He adopted a military career at the outset of the American Revolutionary War, where his military exploits and fiery personality quickly earned him promotion to brigadier general and the nickname "Mad Anthony". He later served as the Senior Officer of the Army on the Ohio Country frontier and led the Legion of the United States.

Those named for ANTHONY WAYNE:
• Anthony Wayne Brewer, b. 1831 Logan Co, VA. Buried: Brewer-Fitzpatrick Cemetery, Marrowbone
• Anthony Wayne Brewer, b. March 25, 1861 Logan Co, WV. Buried: Anthony Wayne Brewer Cemetery, Antney Branch, Marrowbone Creek
• Anthony Wayne Brewer (Spaulding), b. March 1, 1876 Marrowbone creek. Buried: Brewer Cemetery, Marrowbone Creek
• Rev. Anthony Wayne Mead, b. June 11, 1852 Logan Co, VA. Buried: Maher, Mingo Co, WV
• Anthony Wayne Sartin, b. Aug 12, 1884 Logan Co, WV. Buried: Brewer-Sartin Cemetery, Marrowbone Creek
• Anthony Wayne Sturgill Sr., b. Sep 19, 1886 Mingo Co, WV. Buried: Wayne Sturgill Cemetery, Big Laurel Branch, Marrowbone Creek

Those named for LORENZO DOW:
(October 16, 1777 – February 2, 1834) was an eccentric itinerant American evangelist, said to have preached to more people than any other preacher of his era. He became an important figure and a popular writer. His autobiography at one time was the second best-selling book in the United States, exceeded only by the Bible.
• Lorenzo D. Chapman, b. 1860 VA. Buried at Long Branch Cemetery, along the ridge leading up to that road. Son of Jim Burl Chapman and Martha J. Evans.
• Lorenzo Dow Hensley, b. 1848 KY. Married Rebecca Parsley. Son of Abraham Hensley and Jane Ball
• Lorenzo D. Harrison, b. 1848 KY. Married Sarah Ann Hensley, daughter of above Lorenzo Dow Hensley and Rebecca Parsley.
• Lorenzo D. McKenzie, b. 1899 Ft. Gay, WV. Married Alcie Marie Marcum, daughter of John Lincoln Marcum and Anna Spaulding.
• Lorenzo Dow McGranaham, father of John Q. McGranaham b. 1864, mentioned in a previous post

Those named for PYRRHUS (319/318–272 BC) who was a Greek king and statesman of the Hellenistic period. He was king of the Greek tribe of Molossians, of the royal Aeacid house, and later he became king of Epirus. He was one of the strongest opponents of early Rome, and regarded as one of the greatest generals of antiquity. Several of his victorious battles caused him unacceptably heavy losses, from which the term Pyrrhic victory was coined.

• Pyrrhus Bingham Meade, b. June 9, 1869 Wayne Co, WV. Buried Brewer-Fitzpatrick Cemetery
• Pyrrhus Evans, b. Feb 22, 1867 WV. Buried Newsome Cemetery, Big Branch, Mingo Co, WV
• Purrus Fields, b. March 8, 1879 WV. Buried Anderson Cemetery, Jennie’s Creek


Army History Timeline

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History of the United Nations

The United Nations Charter is the treaty that established the United Nations, it was ratified on 24 October 1945. The following series of events led to the writing of the Charter, and the UN's founding:

Declaration of St. James Palace

After World War II there was a strong feeling that a way had to be found to keep peace among nations. The idea for creating an international organization dedicated to maintaining peace took hold during the war. However, it took many years of planning before the United Nations actually came into existence. Here is a summary of the main events that led up to creation of the UN Charter.

Declaration of St. James Palace (June 1941)

In June 1941, London was the home of nine exiled governments. The British capital had survived twenty-two months of war and in the bomb-marked city, air-raid sirens wailed frequently. Practically all of Europe had fallen to the Axis powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan) and ships on the Atlantic, carrying vital supplies, sank with regularity.

On 12 June 1941, the representatives of Great Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa as well as representatives of the exiled governments from Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Yugoslavia and the Free French, met in London to sign the Declaration of St. James Palace to pledge their solidarity in fighting aggression until victory against the Axis powers was won.

The Declaration proclaimed that &ldquothe only true basis of enduring peace is the willing cooperation of free peoples in a world in which, relieved of the menace of aggression, all may enjoy economic and social security."

Atlantic Charter (August 1941)
In August 1941, the Axis powers seemed to have the upper hand. Germany had commenced its attack on the USSR and carefully stage-managed meetings between Hitler and Mussolini, which ended in &ldquoperfect accord,&rdquo sounded grimly foreboding. Although the United States was giving moral and material support to the Allies, it had not yet entered the war. One afternoon, two months after the Declaration of St. James Palace, came the news that President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill were in conference &ldquosomewhere at sea&rdquo&mdashthe same seas on which the desperate Battle of the Atlantic was being fought&mdash and on August 14 the two leaders issued a joint declaration destined to be known in history as the Atlantic Charter.

British battleship HMS Prince of Wales, during the Atlantic Charter meeting

This document was not a treaty between the two powers. Nor was it a final and formal expression of peace aims. It was only an affirmation, as the document declared, &ldquoof certain common principles in the national policies of their respective countries on which they based their hopes for a better future for the world.&rdquo

The sixth clause of the Atlantic Charter declared that &ldquoafter the final destruction of Nazi tyranny they hope to see established a peace which will afford to all nations the means of dwelling in safety within their own boundaries, and which will afford assurance that all the men in all the lands may live out their lives in freedom from fear and want.&rdquo The seventh clause stated that such a peace should enable all men to traverse the high seas without hindrance, and the eighth clause concluded by emphasizing the need for nations to abandon the use of force: &ldquoThey believe that all of the nations of the world, for realistic as well as spiritual reasons, must come to the abandonment of the use of force. Since no future peace can be maintained if land, sea or air armaments continue to be employed by nations which threaten, or may threaten, aggression outside of their frontiers, they believe, pending the establishment of a wider and permanent system of general security, that the disarmament of such nations is essential. They will likewise aid and encourage all other practicable measures which will lighten for peace-loving peoples the crushing burden of armaments.&rdquo

Other points of the Atlantic Charter also affirmed the basic principles of universal human rights: no territorial changes without the freely-expressed wishes of the peoples concerned the right of every people to choose their own form of government and equal access to raw materials for all nations.

Coming from the two great democratic leaders of the day and implying the full moral support of the United States, the Atlantic Charter created a profound impression on the embattled Allies. It came as a message of hope to the occupied countries, and it held out the promise of a world organization based on universal moral principles. That it had little legal validity did not detract from its value. Support for the principles of the Atlantic Charter and a pledge of cooperation came from a meeting of ten governments in London shortly after Mr. Churchill returned from his ocean rendezvous. This declaration was signed on September 24 by the USSR and the nine exiled governments of occupied Europe: Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Yugoslavia and by the representatives of General de Gaulle of France.

Declaration by United Nations (1 January 1942)

On New Year&rsquos Day 1942, President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, Maxim Litvinov, of the USSR, and T. V. Soong, of China, signed a short document which later came to be known as the United Nations Declaration. The next day, the representatives of twenty-two other nations added their signatures. The governments that signed this declaration pledged to accept the Atlantic Charter and agreed not to negotiate a separate peace with any of the Axis powers.

Declaration by United Nations issued in Washington, DC, on 01 January 1942

Three years later, when preparations were being made for the San Francisco Conference, only those States which had, by March 1945, declared war on Germany and Japan and subscribed to the United Nations Declaration, were invited to take part.

The original twenty-six signatories of the Declaration were:

USA UK USSR Čína
Austrália Grécko Nicaragua Belgicko
Guatemala Nórsko Kanada Haiti
Panama Kostarika Honduras Poľsko
Kuba India Union of South Africa Czechoslovakia
Luxembursko Juhoslávia Dominican Republic Netherlands
El Salvador Nový Zéland

Other countries that signed the Declaration later (in order of signature):

27) Mexico 28) Iran 29) Peru 30) Turkey
31) Philippines 32) Colombia 33) Chile 34) Egypt
35) Ethiopia 36) Liberia 37) Paraguay 38) Saudi Arabia
39) Iraq 40) France 41) Venezuela 42) Brazil
43) Ecuador 44) Uruguay 45) Bolivia

The Declaration by United Nations marks the first official use of this term. The Allies used it to refer to their alliance.

Moscow Declaration (October 1943) and Tehran Conference (December 1943)

By 1943 all the principal Allied nations were committed to working together to achieve victory and, thereafter, to create a world in which &ldquomen in all lands may live out their lives in freedom from fear and want.&rdquo In October 1943, representatives from Great Britain, the United States, China and the Soviet Union met in Moscow. On October 30 these representatives signed the Moscow Declaration [link to MD insert photo of signatures]. The Declaration pledged joint action in dealing with the enemies&rsquo surrender and, in clause 4, proclaimed: &ldquoThat they [the governments of the United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union and China] recognize the necessity of establishing at the earliest practicable date a general international organization, based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all peace-loving states, and open to membership by all such states, large and small, for the maintenance of international peace and security.&rdquo This clause further develops the idea of an intergovernmental organization that would maintain peace and security in the world that was implicit in the Atlantic Charter.

In December, two months after the Moscow Declaration, Roosevelt, Stalin and Churchill, met for the first time in Tehran, the capital of Iran, where they worked out the Allies final strategy for winning the war.

At the end of the conference they declared: &ldquoWe are sure that our concord will win an enduring peace. We recognize fully the supreme responsibility resting upon us and all the United Nations to make a peace which will command the goodwill of the overwhelming mass of the peoples of the world and banish the scourge and terror of war for many generations.&rdquo

Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta Conference (1944-1945)

The fundamental principles underlying the establishment of an international organization dedicated to maintaining peace and security were already laid out in the various declarations that were issued from 1941 onward. The next step required defining the structure of this new organization. A blueprint had to be prepared, and it had to be accepted by many nations. For this purpose, representatives of China, Great Britain, the USSR and the United States met at Dumbarton Oaks, a private mansion in Washington, D. C.

Representatives of the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States meeting in the opening session of the Conference on Security Organization for Peace in the Post-War World.

The discussions were completed on October 7, 1944, and a proposal for the structure of the new intergovernmental organization was submitted by the four powers to all the United Nations governments for their study and discussion.

According to the Dumbarton Oaks proposals, the organization, to be known as the United Nations, would consist of four principal bodies: 1) a General Assembly composed of all the members, 2) a Security Council of eleven members, of which five would be permanent and the other six would be chosen by the General Assembly for two year terms, 3) an International Court of Justice, and 4) a Secretariat. An Economic and Social Council, working under the authority of the General Assembly, was also provided for. The essence of the plan was that responsibility for preventing future war should be conferred upon the Security Council. The actual method of voting in the Security Council -- an all-important question -- was left open at Dumbarton Oaks for future discussion.

Another important feature of the Dumbarton Oaks plan was that member states were to place armed forces at the disposal of the Security Council, if needed, to prevent war or suppress acts of aggression. The absence of such force, it was generally agreed, had been a fatal weakness in the older League of Nations. The Dumbarton Oaks proposals were fully discussed throughout the Allied countries. The British Government issued a detailed commentary, and in the United States, the Department of State distributed 1,900,000 copies of the text and arranged for speakers, radio programs and motion picture films to explain the proposals. Comments and constructive criticisms came from several governments, e.g., Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, the Union of South Africa, the USSR, the United Kingdom and the United States. Extensive press and radio discussion enabled people in Allied countries to judge the merits of the new plan for peace. Much attention was given to the differences between this new plan and the Covenant of the League of Nations.

The important issue regarding the voting procedure in the Security Council that had been left open at Dumbarton Oaks was addressed at Yalta in the Crimea where Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin, together with their foreign ministers and chiefs of staff, met in early 1945.

Leaders of the major allied powers of World War II meeting at Yalta in the Russian Crimea on 12 February 1945, to decide on military plans for the final defeat of Germany.

On February 11, 1945, the conference announced that this question had been resolved and called for a Conference of United Nations to be held in San Francisco on 25 April 1945 "to prepare the charter of such an organization, along the lines proposed in the formal conversations of Dumbarton Oaks.&rdquo The invitations were sent out on March 5, 1945, and those invited were told at the same time about the agreement reached at Yalta on the voting procedure in the Security Council. Soon after, in early April, President Roosevelt suddenly died. President Truman decided not to postpone the arrangements that had already been made for this important event which took place on the appointed date.

San Francisco Conference (1945)

Forty-five nations, including the four sponsors, were originally invited to the San Francisco Conference: nations that had declared war on Germany and Japan and had signed the Declaration by United Nations.

Six additional countries were invited: Syria and Lebanon (at the request of France), Argentina, newly-liberated Denmark, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.

Thus, delegates from 50 nations gathered in San Francisco.

United Nations Charter Conference in San Francisco, California, USA, 26 June 1945

They represented over eighty per cent of the world's population and were determined to set up an organization that would preserve peace and help build a better world. The main objective of the San Francisco conference, officially known as the "United Nations Conference on International Organization" (UNCIO), was to produce a Charter for this new organization that would be acceptable to all the countries.

There were 850 delegates. Along with their advisers and staff together with the conference secretariat, the total number of people attending the conference was 3,500. In addition, there were more than 2,500 media representatives and observers from many organizations. In all, the San Francisco Conference was not only one of the most important in history but, perhaps, the largest international gathering ever to take place.

The conference took place from April 25 to June 26, 1945. The process of writing a Charter for the United Nations took two months. Every part of it had to be voted on and accepted by a two-thirds majority. Here is how the San Francisco Conference accomplished its monumental work: using the Dumbarton Oaks proposals and the Yalta agreement as a starting point, the proposed Charter was divided into four sections. The delegates working on each section formed a "Commission." Commission I dealt with the general purposes and principles of the organization, issues relating to membership, the Secretariat and the subject of amendments to the Charter. Commission II considered the powers and responsibilities of the General Assembly, while Commission III took up the Security Council. Finally, Commission IV worked on a draft for the Statute of the International Court of Justice establishing the judicial organ of the United Nations. This draft had been prepared by a 44-nation Committee of Jurists, which had met in Washington in April 1945.

Given the wide scope of issues each Commission had to work on they were further subdivided into twelve technical committees. Over the course of two months, there were approximately 400 meetings of the different committees at which every line and comma was hammered out.

Photographic reproduction of the original manuscript of the Preamble to the Charter of the United Nations, prepared for printing

It was more than words and phrases, of course that had to be decided upon. There were many serious clashes of opinion, divergences of outlook and even a crisis or two, during which some observers feared that the conference might adjourn without an agreement.

There was the question, for example, of the status of "regional organizations&rdquo. Many countries had their own arrangements for regional defense and mutual assistance such as the Inter-American System, for example, and the Arab League. How were such arrangements to be related to the new intergovernmental organization? The conference decided to give them a role in bringing about a peaceful settlement provided that the aims and actions of these groups accorded with the aims and purposes of the United Nations.

One issue that provoked long and heated debate was the right of each permanent member of the Security Council (China, the Soviet Union, United States, United Kingdom, and France) to veto any resolution passed by the Security Council. At one point, the conflict of opinion on this question threatened to break up the conference. The smaller powers feared that when one of the "Big Five" menaced the peace, the Security Council would be powerless to act, while in the event of a clash between two powers not permanent members of the Security Council, the "Big Five" could act arbitrarily. They strove therefore to have the power of the "veto" reduced. But the great powers unanimously insisted on this provision and emphasized that the main responsibility for maintaining world peace would fall most heavily on them. Eventually the smaller powers conceded the point in the interest of setting up the world organization.

This and other controversial issues were resolved only because every nation was determined to set up, if not the perfect international organization, at least the best that could possibly be made.

In the final stages, ten plenary meetings were held so that the full gathering of delegates had an opportunity to discuss and vote on the work drafted by the various committees. On June 25, 1945, the delegates met in the San Francisco Opera House for the last full session of the conference. Lord Halifax presided and put the final draft of the Charter to the meeting. "This issue upon which we are about to vote," he said, "is as important as any we shall ever vote in our lifetime." In view

Delegate from China signing the United Nations Charter in San Francisco, CA

of the world importance of the occasion, he suggested that it would be appropriate to depart from the customary method of voting by a show of hands. Then, as the issue was put, every delegate rose and remained standing. So did everyone present, the staffs, the press and some 3000 visitors, and the hall resounded to a mighty ovation as the Chairman announced that the Charter had been passed unanimously. The next day, in the auditorium of the Veterans' Memorial Hall, the delegates filed up one by one to a huge round table on which lay the two historic volumes, the Charter and the Statute of the International Court of Justice. Behind each delegate stood the other members of the delegation against a colorful semi-circle of the flags of fifty nations. In the dazzling brilliance of powerful spotlights, each delegate affixed his signature. China, the first victim of aggression by an Axis power, was given the honor of signing first.

"The Charter of the United Nations which you have just signed," said President Truman in addressing the final session "is a solid structure upon which we can build a better world. History will honor you for it. Between the victory in Europe and the final victory, in this most destructive of all wars, you have won a victory against war itself. . . . With this Charter the world can begin to look forward to the time when all worthy human beings may be permitted to live decently as free people."

Title page of the United Nations Charter in English

Then the President pointed out that the Charter would work only if the peoples of the world were determined to make it work. "If we fail to use it," he concluded, "we shall betray all those who have died so that we might meet here in freedom and safety to create it. If we seek to use it selfishly &mdash for the advantage of any one nation or any small group of nations &mdash we shall be equally guilty of that betrayal."

The United Nations did not come into existence at the signing of the Charter. In many countries the Charter had to be approved by their congresses or parliaments. It had therefore been provided that the Charter would come into force when the Governments of China, France,Great Britain, the Soviet Union and the United States and a majority of the other signatory states had ratified it and deposited notification to this effect with the State Department of the United States.

On October 24, 1945, this condition was fulfilled and the United Nations came into existence. Four years of planning and the hope of many years had materialized in an international organization designed to end war and promote peace, justice and better living for all mankind.

Children of UN Secretariat members study the UN Charter in the Delegates' Lounge

At the time of the San Francisco conference, Poland, one of the original signatories of the Declaration, did not have its new government in place and therefore could not attend. On June 28, the new Polish government was announced. By October 15, 1945 Poland had signed the Charter that was written in San Francisco and is therefore considered one of the original Members of the new United Nations.]]>