Informácie

Nakajima A1N


Nakajima A1N

Nakajima A1N bol navrhnutý v Británii ako Gloster Gambet, ale slúžil japonskému cisárskemu námorníctvu ako stíhací letún typu 3, ktorý nahradil Gloster Sparrowhawk.

Gambet navrhol v Glosteri Henry Folland ako súkromný podnik. Bol to jednoplošný dvojplošník s nerovným rozpätím, poháňaný radiálnym motorom Bristol Jupiter a vyzbrojený dvoma dopredu samopalnými guľometmi Vickers. Bol navrhnutý na použitie ako námorné lietadlo s aretačnými háčikmi a flotačným zariadením.

V roku 1926 japonské cisárske námorníctvo požiadalo Aichiho, Mitsubishiho a Nakajimu, aby predložili návrhy bojovníka prenášaného nosičom, ktorý by nahradil Glostera Sparrowhawka. Nakajima oslovil Gloster a v júli 1927 kúpil prototyp Gambet a výrobnú licenciu.

Gambet bol upravený dizajnérskym tímom Nakajima vedeným Takao Yoshidom, čiastočne kvôli uspokojeniu špecifických námorných požiadaviek a čiastočne kvôli uľahčeniu stavby v Japonsku. Lietadlo získalo kontrakt na námorníctvo a začalo sa vyrábať ako stíhací letún typu Navy 3. Vyrobili sa dve verzie, z ktorých A1N1 bolo vyrobených päťdesiat a A1N2, z ktorých bolo vyrobených sto. Výroba všetkých 150 lietadiel prebiehala v rokoch 1929 až 1930.

Nakajima A1N bola použitá počas incidentu v Šanghaji a zostala v frontovej službe do roku 1935. Nahradil ju Nakajima A2N, ďalší dvojplošník.

Štatistiky pre Gloster Gambet
Motor: Radiálny motor Bristol Jupiter VI
Výkon: 420 koní
Posádka: 1
Rozpätie krídla: 31 stôp 0 palcov
Dĺžka: 21 stôp 3,5 palca
Výška: 10 stôp 8 palcov
Prázdna hmotnosť: 2 010 libier
Maximálna vzletová hmotnosť: 3 075 libier
Maximálna rýchlosť: 152 mph
Cestovná rýchlosť:
Servisný strop: 23 200 stôp
Výdrž: 3 hodiny 45 minút pri 15 000 stopách
Výzbroj: Dva guľomety Vickers ráže 7,7 mm
Nálož bomby: Štyri 20 librové bomby pod krídlami


Nakajima A1N - história


Nakajima A1N1 (vľavo) a Nakajima A1N2 (vpravo).

V priebehu roku 1926 sa na spoločnosť Gloucestershire Aircraft (Gloster Aircraft z 11. novembra 1926) obrátil koncern Nakajima, ktorý (spolu s Aichi a Mitsubishi) bol požiadaný, aby v súťaži, ktorú v apríli 1926 oznámil, predložil návrh nového jednomiestneho palubného stíhača. japonské cisárske námorníctvo nahradiť Mitsubishi Type 10 (1MF4).
V tejto dobe H. P. Folland z Glosteru navrhoval palubného bojovníka ako podnikový podnik s názvom Gambet a založený na Greebe/Gamecock. Lietadlo malo klasickú drevenú konštrukciu poháňanú deväťvalcom Bristol Jupiter VI s výkonom 420 koní. Gloster upravil prototyp Gambet tak, aby spĺňal požiadavky japonského cisárskeho námorníctva na stíhačku. Zahŕňalo to vybudovanie pevnejšej draku lietadla, predĺženie krídla, aby bola zaistená lepšia stabilita, a začlenenie háčika lanka zvodiča so zadnou vzperou. Japonci získali tento prototyp v júli 1927 spolu s výrobnými právami.



Prototyp Gloster Gambet.
Sidnei E. Maneta
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Po úprave tímom Nakajima vedeným Takao Yoshidom a inštalácii motora Jupiter VI s výkonom 520 k, nakajima postavený, spoločnosť Gambet súťažila s prototypmi pôvodného dizajnu a bola oficiálne prijatá v apríli 1929 ako nosná stíhačka typu 3 alebo A1N1.
Nakajima zostrojila asi 50 lietadiel s motorom Nakajima Jupiter VI s výkonom 420 k a prvou uvedenou službou do prevádzky v roku 1929 nahradila Mitsubishi (1MF) Typ 10 na nosičoch Hosho, Akagi, Kaga a neskôr na Ryujo (1933).


Nakajima A1N1s od dopravcov Hosho (vľavo) a Kaga (vpravo).
Sidnei E. Maneta
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Nakajima A1N1s od dopravcu Akagi.
Sidnei E. Maneta
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Po A1N1 nasledovala približne stovka vylepšenej verzie A1N2 s motorom Nakajima Kotobuki 2 s výkonom 450 koní, ktorý bol predstavený v roku 1930. Výroba bola ukončená v roku 1932.
A1N2 bol prvým japonským bojovníkom, ktorý sa zapojil do boja počas „incidentu v Šanghaji“ od januára do mája 1932. Prvé víťazstvá IJNAF si pripísal 22. februára, keď PO3c Toshio Kuro-iwa a poručík Nokiji Ikuta zostrelili model Boeingu. 281 (P-12E) pilotovaný americkým žoldnierom Robertom Shortom.
A1N1 a A1N2 boli vyradené z prevádzky v roku 1935.
Nakajima A1N používala aj Kasumigaura Kokutai.

Bojovníci A1N niesli štandardné farby IJNAF dobovo strieborne dopovaného trupu a krídel, zatiaľ čo chvostové plochy boli červené. Vzpery krídel a krídel boli čierne, zatiaľ čo vzpery krídel mali biele spevňujúce pásy. Štandardné označenie bojovníka bolo Hinomarus na všetkých šiestich pozíciách. Identifikačné označenie jednotlivých lietadiel bolo nanesené bielou farbou na obidve strany plutvy a čiernou farbou na bokoch trupu. Táto čierna identifikácia sa opakovala cez horné krídlo a na ľavej aj pravej strane na dolnom povrchu dolného krídla. V tomto čase sa identifikačné označenie skladalo z dvoch častí, z jednej slabiky Katakany označujúcej nosiča a troch arabských číslic označujúcich jednotlivé lietadlá.


Nakajima A1N2s od dopravcu Kaga (vľavo) a Ryujo (vpravo).
Sidnei E. Maneta
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Nakajima A1N2s z Kasumigaura Kokutai (vľavo) a ďalší pozemný príklad (vpravo).
Sidnei E. Maneta
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Verzie (so zostavou):
A1N1 (

Služba Nakajima A1N slúžila v: Japonsku (IJNAF).

Technické detaily Nakajima A1N1 (A1N2)
Typ: ____________ Bojovník
Posádka: ____________ 1
Rozpätie: ____________ 9,70 m (9,68 m)
Dĺžka: __________ 6,50 m (6,48 m)
Motor: __________ Nakajima Jupiter VI / 420 k (Nakajima Kotobuki 2 /450 k)
Maximálna rýchlosť: _______ 218 km/h (239 km/h)
Servisný strop: _7000 m
Výzbroj: ________ 2 x 7,7 mm pevné dopredu vystreľujúce guľomety a jedna 9 kg bomba (jedna 30 kg bomba)

Zdroje:
Japonské námorné esá a stíhacie jednotky v 2. svetovej vojne-Ikuhiko Hata a Yasuho Izawa, preklad Don Cyril Gorham, 1989 Námorný ústav Spojených štátov, Annapolis, ISBN 0-87021-315-6
Kompletná kniha bojovníkov-William Green a Gordon Swanborough, Greenwich Editions, Londýn, ISBN 0-86288-220-6
Ďalšie informácie láskavo poskytli Sidnei E. Maneta a Johan Myhrman.
Profily a obrázky láskavo poskytol Sidnei E. Maneta.


A1N1 vstúpil do služby v roku 1929 a nahradil Mitsubishi 1-MF. Slúžilo na nosičoch Hosho, Akagi, Kaga a Ryūjō. [4] Vylepšené A1N2 vstúpil do služby v roku 1930, pričom výroba pokračovala až do roku 1932. [1]

A1N odletela z nosičov Hosho a Kaga počas incidentu v Šanghaji v roku 1932 medzi Japonskom a Čínou. A1N od Kaga zaznamenal prvé víťazstvo japonského cisárskeho námorníctva v bojoch vzduch-vzduch 22. februára 1932, keď zostrelili Boeing P-12, ktorý pilotoval americký dobrovoľný pilot Robert Short. [4] A1N pokračovali v prevádzke do roku 1935, [5] boli v prevádzke nahradené nosnou stíhačkou Nakajima A2N alebo Navy Type 90.


Зміст

У 1926 році Імперський флот Японії оголосив конкурс на створення нового палубного винищувача для зам В конкурсі взяли участь фірми Mitsubishi, Nakajima, Aichi tak Kawanishi. Основною вимогою замовника було забезпечення плавучості літака у випадку аварійної посадки на вод

Mitsubishi побудувала прототип-біплан з водонепроникним корпусом, що призвело до нбонна Літак вийшов досить інертним та маломаневреним і був відхилений замовником.

.Ірма Aichiне маючи належного досвіду у розробці літаків, замовила його в німецької фірми Heinkel. Замовлення було виконане швидко, але літак вийшов навіть гірший, ніж у Mitsubishi - він був ще важчий, з поганим оглядом та поганою маневреністю. Він також був відхилений.

.Ірма Kawanishi, проаналізувавши свої можливості, знялась з конкурсу.

Керівництво фірми Nakajimaоцінивши свої можливості, не ризикнуло самостійно братись за розробку літака, і звернуло увагу Gloster Gamecock англійської фірми «Gloster Aircraft Company», розроблений Генрі Фолландом (англ. Henry Folland). Також Фолландом був розроблений палубний варіант винищувача Gambet, оснащений 9-циліндровтм радіальним двигуном Bristol Jupiter VI потужністю 420 к.с. Літак виявився непотрібним на батьківщині, але зацікавив японських конструкторів. У 1927 році був укладений контракт на придбання 2 літаків Gloster Gambet, Bristol Jupiter VI. Розробкою японського аналога Gloster Gambet керував Такао Йошида. Овні літак майже не відрізнявся від прототипу, Йошида практично тільки адаптував його до впонск

Конструктивно літак Nakajima A1N був суцільнодерев'яним біпланом з полотняною обшивкою, відкритою кабіною, прикритою невеликим коз 2 кулемети «Vickers-Е» калібру 7,7-мм розташовувались по бортах фюзеляжу. Конструктори прийшли до висновку, о немає потреби робити водонепроникний корпус, що значно обтя Значно практичніше було розмітити в елементах силового набору літака повітряні мішки, щонон Дане рішення виявилось настільки вдалим, що без особливих змін застосовувалось на всіх японських флотських літаках аж до кінця Другої світової війни.

У 1928 році прототип успішно пройшов випробування і у 1929 році був прийнятий на озброєння під назвоо «Палубний винищувач флоту Тип 3 Модель 1» (alebo A1N1). В період з 1928 по 1930 роки було збудовано 50 літаків. У 1930 році була розроблена досконаліша модель A1N2 з двигуном власної розробки Nakajima Kotobuki 2 потужністю 450 к.с. та металевим гвинтом замість дерев'яного. 193о кінця 1932 року було випущено 100 літаків моделі A1N2.

Технічні характеристики Редагувати

  • Napríklad: 1 hodina
  • Doplnok: 6,50 m
  • Розмах крил: 9,70 m
  • Площа крил: 26,3 m²
  • Маса порожнього: 882 kg
  • Маса спорядженого: 1 375 кг
  • Двигуни: Nakajima Kotobuki 2
  • Príklad: 450 к. с.

Льотні характеристики Редагувати

  • Максимальна швидкість: 241 км/г на висоті 3000 м
  • крейсерська швидкість: 148 мм/г
  • Швидкість набору висоти 3000 m: 6 x 10 s
  • Практична дальність: 370 km
  • Практична стеля: 7 000 m

Озброєння Редагувати

  • Gloster Gambet - прототип двигун Bristol Jupiter VI (420 к.с.) (1 екз).
  • A1N1 - початкова ліцензійна версія (50 екз. 1928-1930 р.р.)
  • A1N2 - покращена версія двигун Nakajima Kotobuki 2 (450 к.с.) (100 екз., 1930-1932 р.р.)

Літаки Nakajima A1N були прийняті на озброєння у 1929 році. Вони базувались на авіаносцях «Хошо», «Акаґі», «Каґа» та «Рюдзьо». Čo to znamená?збройного конфлікту між Японією та Китаєм). 22 лютого 1932 року літак Nakajima A1N з авіаносця «Каґа» здобув першу перемогу авіації японського Імператорського флоту, збивши літак літак китайських ВПС Boeing P-12, який пілотував американський льотчик-доброволець Роберт Шорт (англ. Robert McCawley Short).

Літаки Nakajima A1N перебували у строю до 1935 року, коли вони почали замінюватись новішими Nakajima A2N.


História

Lietadlo Nakajima založil v roku 1918 bývalý námorný inžinier Chikuhei Nakajima s pomocou ďalších ôsmich. Spoločnosť sa však v roku 1919 rozpadla a Chikuhei kúpil továreň svojho bývalého partnera. Ώ ] Prostredníctvom prvých prototypov skupina získala skúsenosti a začala s vytváraním stále úspešnejších lietadiel. Do roku 1920 si IJA všimla lietadlo Nakajima a zaznamenalo to prudký nárast priemyslu, pretože zmluvy boli stále väčšie. ΐ ]  Nakadžima sa nakoniec stala jednou z najväčších spoločností v celom Japonsku, keď sa začala vojna, ktorá rýchlo vyrábala lietadlá, aby splnila požiadavky konfliktu. Ako však začala druhá svetová vojna, ako mnoho ďalších spoločností, výroba stuhla, nedostatok materiálu sa rozrástol a zariadenia neexistovali pre bombové útoky. Na konci vojny bola spoločnosť Nakajima Aircraft Co. rozpustená a sformovaná na niekoľko menších civilných spoločností.  


R/V Petrel objavuje potopeného nosiča japonskej flotily Kaga

Seattle, WA, 18. októbra 2019 - Pri rozsiahlom podmorskom prieskume miesta bitky o Midway objavila spoločnosť Research Vessel (R/V) Petrel, ktorú vlastní a prevádzkuje spoločnosť Vulcan Inc., dlho stratené vraky z bitky.

16. októbra bola posádka R/V Petrela schopná identifikovať pozostatky lode ako lietadlá japonskej lietadlovej lode IJN Kaga.

Bitka o Midway v roku 1942 bola rozhodujúcou námornou bitkou počas 2. svetovej vojny, ku ktorej došlo šesť mesiacov po útoku Japonska na Pearl Harbor.

Posádka na palube lode R/V Petrel strávila niekoľko týždňov prieskumom rozsiahlej oblasti a zdokumentovala viac ako 500 štvorcových námorných míľ, všetko v rámci Národného národného pamätníka Papahanaumokuakea.

Trosky mesta Kaga bol nájdený 5 400 metrov (viac ako 17 000 stôp) pod povrchom.

Lietadlová loď japonského cisárskeho námorníctva Kaga zakotvila pri japonskom Ikari niekedy v roku 1930.

"Tento projekt sa výrazne líši od predchádzajúcich misií, pretože si vyžadoval úroveň vyšetrovania, analýzy a prieskumu angažovanosti nosiča spočiatku oddeleného viac ako 150 nm, pričom celková plocha pokrýva tisíce štvorcových námorných míľ," povedal Robert Kraft, riaditeľ podmorského regiónu. operácie pre Vulcan Inc.

"Bola to veľká bitka medzi nosičmi, ktorá zanechala svoje desivé dôkazy tisíce kilometrov po dne oceánu." S každým kusom trosiek a každou loďou, ktorú objavíme a identifikujeme, je naším cieľom uctiť si históriu a tých, ktorí slúžili a zaplatili najvyššiu obeť za svoje krajiny. “

Po útoku na Pearl Harbor japonské cisárske námorníctvo dúfalo, že ďalšia porážka zničí americkú tichomorskú flotilu. Japonský admirál Isoroku Yamamoto plánoval vtrhnúť do Midway a nalákal americké lietadlové lode do zálohy.

Spoločnosť Midway bola vybraná pre svoju strategickú polohu v strednom Pacifiku a v prípade úspechu poskytla pre Japonsko dopredu operačnú základňu.

Kaga vykonáva leteckú operáciu v roku 1930. Na hornej palube sú torpédové bombardéry Mitsubishi B1M, ktoré sa pripravujú na štart. Stíhačky Nakajima A1N typu 3 sú zaparkované na dolnom poschodí vpredu.

Čiastočne aj vďaka veľkému pokroku v prelomení kódu boli americkí kryptografi schopní určiť dátum a miesto plánovaného útoku, čo umožnilo vopred varovanému americkému námorníctvu pripraviť si vlastné prepadnutie.

Veliteľ tichomorskej flotily admirál Chester W. Nimitz umiestnil americké nosiče do pozície, aby prekvapili japonskú flotilu, keď sa priblížili k ostrovu Midway.

Od 4. do 7. júna 1942 bojovalo americké námorníctvo s útočiacou flotilou japonského námorníctva neďaleko Midway, pričom spôsobilo japonskej flotile devastačné škody a bitku nakoniec vyhralo.

Kaga (v popredí) so Zuikaku (pozadie) smeruje k Pearl Harboru niekedy medzi 26. novembrom a 7. decembrom 1941.

"Bitka o Midway bola prelomom americkej inteligencie," povedal Frank Thompson, kurátor z Námorného veliteľstva histórie a dedičstva.

"Tím, ktorý rozlúštil kódy japonskej flotily, umožnil veliteľovi tichomorskej flotily Nimitzovi porozumieť japonským zámerom a podľa toho plánovať." Toto bol skutočný zlom vo vojne pre americké námorníctvo. “

Bitky sa zúčastnili štyri japonské a tri americké lietadlové lode. Štyria japonskí dopravcovia flotíl - Kaga, Akagi, Sōryū a Hiryū„Časť síl šiestich nosičov, ktoré zaútočili na Pearl Harbor pred šiestimi mesiacmi-boli všetci potopení, rovnako ako ťažký japonský krížnik Mikuma.

USA stratili dopravcu Yorktown a ničiteľ Hammann. Americké straty predstavovali 145 lietadiel a viac ako tristo námorníkov.

Kontraadmirál Brian P Fort, veliteľ japonských námorných síl, uviedol vo vyhlásení “ Pri príležitosti objavenia Kaga, posielame svoje myšlienky a modlitby našim dôveryhodným a váženým priateľom v Japonsku.

Hroznú cenu vojny v Pacifiku pocítili všetky naše námorníctva. Z tejto bolestivej lekcie sme sa stali najbližšími spojencami a priateľmi, ktorí sa zaviazali udržiavať slobodný a otvorený indo-Pacifik. ”

Posádka na palube lode R/V Petrel objavila viac ako 30 potopených vojnových lodí vrátane USS Sršeň, USS Osa, USS Juneau, USS Strážca, USS Lexington, USS Helena a možno najznámejšie je USS Indianapolis za posledných pár rokov.

Ďalšie minulé expedície vedené Vulkánom mali za následok objavenie USS Astoria, Japonská bojová loď Musashi a taliansky torpédoborec z 2. svetovej vojny Artigliere.


Japonská “Army nula ” – Nakajima Ki-43 na 27 fotografiách

Japonský Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa bol relatívne pomalé, ľahko vyzbrojené a krehké pozemné taktické stíhacie lietadlo, ale stalo sa legendárnym vďaka svojmu výkonu vo východnej Ázii v prvých rokoch druhej svetovej vojny a bol známy svojou mimoriadnosťou. manévrovateľnosť a rýchlosť stúpania počas služby u leteckej služby japonskej cisárskej armády.

Napriek tomu, že spojenci Ki-43 oficiálne uviedli ako Oscara, americkí piloti ho často označovali ako “Army Zero ”, pretože jeho usporiadanie a línie, radiálny motor Nakajima Sakae, okrúhle kryty a baldachýnový baldachýn boli črtami veľmi podobnými stíhačke dlhého doletu Mitsubishi A6M Zero, ktorá slúžila u japonského námorníctva.

Vrtuľa, Nakajima Ki-43-II Hayabusa v “Veľkom múzeu vlasteneckej vojny ”. Foto: Mike1979 Rusko CC BY-SA 3.0

Hideo Itokawa bol konštruktérom Ki-43 a jeho úspechy mu neskôr priniesli slávu ako priekopníka japonskej raketovej techniky. Je dôležité poznamenať, že príbeh Ki-43 nezačal ako príbeh úspechu.

Pohľad spredu na japonskú Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa (隼 Peregrine Falcon), označovanú ako armádny bojovník typu 1 a ktorú spojenecké sily označujú ako “Oscar ”.

Prvý vzlietnutý prototyp na začiatku januára 1939 bol sklamaním, pretože neposkytoval lepšiu ovládateľnosť ako Ki-27, na ktorý bol Ki-43 vyrobený.

Hideo Itokawa – priekopník japonskej rakety, populárne známy ako “Dr. Rocket,#8221, a v médiách opísaný ako otec japonského vesmírneho rozvoja.

Aby sa napravili problémy s ovládateľnosťou, boli v rokoch 1939 až 1940 vyrobené nasledujúce prototypy. Vykonali sa zásadné zmeny a bolo vykonaných mnoho terénnych testov. Experimentálne zmeny zahŕňali tenší trup, nový baldachýn a zavedenie klapiek Fowler na zlepšenie zdvihu krídel lietadla pri určitej rýchlosti. Klapka Fowler bola implementovaná na 11. prototype a priniesla dramaticky zvýšený výkon v tesných zákrutách.

Kokpit Ki-43 Hayabusa (1944)

13. prototyp spojil všetky tieto zmeny a testy vykonané s týmto lietadlom sa skončili uspokojivo. Spoločnosť Nakajima Aircraft Company dostala preto pokyn, aby tento prototyp s označením Ki-43-I zaradil do výroby.

Lietadlo Nakajima Ki-43-I Hayabusa letelo nad Brisbane v štáte Queensland (Austrália) v roku 1943.

Vďaka svojej nízkej hmotnosti mal Ki-43-I úžasnú manévrovateľnosť a pozoruhodnú rýchlosť stúpania. Bol poháňaný motorom Nakajima Ha-25 a jeho maximálna rýchlosť bola 307,5 ​​mph pri 13 160 stôp.

Japonský Nakajima Ki-43-I Hayabusa (s n 750) v hustej džungli 6 km od letiska Vunakanau, Rabaul, v septembri 1945.

Prototypy pre Ki-43-II mali svoje prvé lety vo februári 1942. Prichádzali s výkonnejším štrnásťvalcovým vzduchom chladeným radiálnym motorom Nakajima Ha-115, ktorý bol vylepšením motora Ki-43-I ’s. Konštrukcia krídla Ki-43-I bola v Ki-43-II posilnená a do krídel boli pridané stojany na spúšťacie tanky alebo bomby. Jeho rýchlosť sa tiež zvýšila na 333 mph a rýchlosť stúpania na 3 900 stôp za minútu.

Nakajima Ki43 II, P-5017, čínske vojenské letectvo

Bol vybavený výzbrojou, ktorá pozostávala z dvoch pevných, dopredu vystreľujúcich 12,7 mm guľometov Ho-103 v kryte a dvoch bômb 551 libier.

12,7 mm guľomet Ho-103. Foto Sturmvogel 66 CC BY-SA 3.0

Mal samotesniacu palivovú nádrž a pancierovú dosku 0,5 ″ na ochranu hlavy a chrbta pilota. Jeho vrchlík bol o niečo vyšší a teleskopický zameriavač predchádzajúceho prototypu nahradil reflektorový zameriavač.

V novembri 1942 sa výroba Ki-43-II začala v továrni Nakajima Ota.

Nakajima Ki-43 type2 – v Pima Air Space Museum

Nakajima bola najpoužívanejšou stíhačkou japonského armádneho letectva (JAAF) a mala kompletnú výzbroj 30 letových plukov Sentai a 12 nezávislých letiek Chutais. Prvou jednotkou, ktorá bola nimi vybavená, bol 59. letecký pluk, ktorého lietadlá Ki-43 absolvovali 29. októbra 1941 svoje prvé operačné lety po oblohe v Hengyangu.

Stíhacie lietadlo japonského armádneho letectva aktívne pôsobiace v Pacifiku počas celej vojny. Japonský názov tohto lietadla bol “Peregrine Falcon ” a spojenecký kódový názov bol “Oscar ”. Foto Stumanusa CC BY 3.0

Ki-43 bojovali o oblohu japonských domácich ostrovov, Číny, Malajského polostrova, Barmy, Filipín, Novej Guiney a ďalších ostrovov v južnom Pacifiku.

Zajatý japonský bojovník Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa (spojenecké kódové meno “Oscar ”) v Clark Field, Luzon (Filipíny), v roku 1945.

Počas prvých bojových skúseností Ki-43 vykazoval určitú leteckú prevahu v Malajzii, Holandskej východnej Indii, Barme a Novej Guinei rovnako ako nula, ale ako bola vojna intenzívnejšia, jej ľahké brnenie a menej účinné samotesniace palivové nádrže by to boli jeho slabé stránky, čo by spôsobilo niekoľko strát a obetí. Jeho guľomety len ťažko prenikali do ťažko obrnených spojeneckých lietadiel.

Zajatý Ki-43 Hayabusa na poli Munda 14. júna 1944

Od októbra do decembra 1944 zostrelili 17 lietadiel Ki-43, ale ku cti im slúžilo celkovo 25 zostrelov, pričom tvrdili pád spojeneckých lietadiel ako C-47, B-24 Liberator, Spitfire, Beaufighter, Mosquito, F4U Corsair, B-29 Superfortress, F6F Hellcat, P-38 a B-25.

US Ki-43-II Otsu kód XJ005 Hollandia 1944

Ku koncu času bolo niekoľko Ki-43, rovnako ako mnoho iných japonských lietadiel, vynaložených pri kamikadze.

Nakajima, Ki-43, Hayabusa ‘ Peregrine Falcon ’ Oscar ‘ Jim ’ Army Type 1 Fighter

V čase jeho odchodu do dôchodku, v roku 1945 v Japonsku a 1952 v Číne, bolo postavených celkom 5 919 Nakajima Ki-43, s 13 variantmi.

Japonská Nakajima Ki-43-I Hayabusa v Brisbane, Queensland (Austrália) v roku 1943.

Japonská stíhačka Nakajima Ki-43-II Hayabusa.

Pohľad spredu, Nakajima Ki-43-IB Oscar v zbierke Flying Heritage Collection. Photo Articseahorse CC BY-SA 4.0

Japonec Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa (隼 Peregrine Falcon), označovaný ako armádny bojovník typu 1 a spojeneckými silami označovaný ako “Oscar ”.

Ki-84s, Ki-43s na základni JAAF po vojne.

Nakajima Ki-43 z “Kato hayabusa sento-tai (plukovník Kato a sokolská letka#8217) ”.

Stíhačka Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa, ktorú čínski nacionalisti vzali ako vojnovú korisť a bola vydaná 6. skupine čínskych nacionalistických vzdušných síl, sa rozbehne pred letom.

Nakajima Ki-43-IB Hayabusa vzlietla v Brisbane v štáte Queensland (Austrália) v roku 1943. Po zajatí bol prestavaný Technickou leteckou spravodajskou jednotkou (TAIU) v hangári 7 na Eagle Farm, Brisbane.

Nakajima Ki-43-IB Oscar v zbierke Flying Heritage Collection. Photo Articseahorse CC BY-SA 4.0

Nakajima Ki-43-II Hayabusa vo Veľkom múzeu vlasteneckej vojny. Foto Mike1979 Rusko CC BY-SA 3.0

Nakajima, Ki-43, Hayabusa “ Sokol sťahovavý ” Oscar “Jim ” armádny bojovník typu 1

Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa (隼, “Peregrine Falcon ”) bol jednomotorový pozemný taktický bojovník, ktorý v 2. svetovej vojne používalo japonské cisárske armádne letectvo.

Vrak japonského letectva Nakajima Ki-43 Hayabusa (Oscar) v juhozápadnom Pacifiku v roku 1943.


Čo Nakajima nájdete rodinné záznamy?

Pre priezvisko Nakajima je k dispozícii 101 záznamov zo sčítania ľudu. Ako okno do ich každodenného života vám záznamy o sčítaní obyvateľstva Nakajimu môžu povedať, kde a ako pracovali vaši predkovia, úroveň vzdelania, status veterána a ďalšie.

Pre priezvisko Nakajima je k dispozícii 4 000 imigračných záznamov. Zoznamy cestujúcich sú vašou vstupenkou k tomu, aby ste vedeli, kedy vaši predkovia dorazili do USA a ako sa vydali na cestu - od názvu lode po prístavy príchodu a odchodu.

K priezvisku Nakajima je k dispozícii 80 vojenských záznamov. Veteránom medzi vašimi predkami z Nakajimy poskytujú vojenské zbierky prehľad o tom, kde a kedy slúžili, a dokonca aj fyzické opisy.

Pre priezvisko Nakajima je k dispozícii 101 záznamov zo sčítania ľudu. Ako okno do ich každodenného života vám záznamy o sčítaní obyvateľstva Nakajimu môžu povedať, kde a ako pracovali vaši predkovia, úroveň vzdelania, status veterána a ďalšie.

Pre priezvisko Nakajima je k dispozícii 4 000 imigračných záznamov. Zoznamy cestujúcich sú vašou vstupenkou k tomu, aby ste vedeli, kedy vaši predkovia dorazili do USA a ako sa vydali na cestu - od názvu lode po prístavy príchodu a odchodu.

K priezvisku Nakajima je k dispozícii 80 vojenských záznamov. Veteránom medzi vašimi predkami z Nakajimy poskytujú vojenské zbierky prehľad o tom, kde a kedy slúžili, a dokonca aj fyzické opisy.


Akira Nakajima Orálna história 2005

Pán McManus: Toto sú Carl Kupfer, Ed McManus a profesor Akira Nakajima a začneme s rozhovorom. Nakajimu sme prešli k tomu, že rozhovor použijeme ako súčasť ústnej histórie významných ľudí, ktorí boli súčasťou minulosti Národného očného ústavu, a dokumentujeme túto minulosť. Použijeme ho tiež ako materiál pre kapitoly, ktoré píšeme v knihe o histórii NEI, predovšetkým v kapitole o medzinárodných záležitostiach - o medzinárodných aktivitách, ktoré píšeme, bude samostatná kapitola. Preto sa tešíme na nejaké informácie od profesora Nakajimu. Prvá otázka, ktorú som mu položil, bola Akira, kedy ste sa prvýkrát dozvedeli o Národnom očnom ústave, ktorý bol založený v roku 1969?

Dr. Nakajima: Áno, áno. Je pre mňa cťou mať tento rozhovor a byť súčasťou histórie NEI. V skutočnosti, v roku 1966, keď sme mali medzinárodný kongres v Mníchove (?), Bol v Tutzingu satelit o očnej biochémii. Je to veľmi pekné letovisko na Starnberger See a zúčastnil som sa tam a prvýkrát som sa stretol s Jinom. Potom bol Jin tam hore veľmi dôležitým človekom v biochémii a obdivoval som ho a chcel som sa s ním stretnúť a stali sme sa veľmi dobrým priateľom. A v tom čase bol v laboratóriu Howe v Bostone.

Dr. Nakajima: Áno, Jin Kinoshita. A to bol začiatok môjho spojenia s NEI.

Pán McManus: Ktorý rok ste to opäť povedali?

Dr. Nakajima: ‘66 s Jinom v Tutsingu, účasť na sympóziu o biochémii oka. A pracuje na niektorých aspektoch enzýmu katarakty. Od tej doby sme komunikovali s Jin a Toichi.

Dr. Nakajima: Boli v jednom laboratóriu s Davom Coganom a Toiche aj Jin chceli nejakých oftalmológov, ktorí sa špecializujú na biochémiu alebo histológiu, a mimochodom mám veľmi schopných ľudí, ktorí robia výskumnú prácu v biochémii a očnej patológii, Okisaka v patológia. Okisaka a Kabasawa v biochémii. Kabasawa bol vtedy študentom biochémie a opustil oftalmológiu. Bol polovičný oftalmológ, ale hlavne biochémia a pracoval na chemickej modifikácii proteínu pod profesorom T. Sekinom. A Okisaka aj Kabasawa išli do laboratória Howe a potom tam bol začiatok Národného očného ústavu. Obaja museli nasledovať Jin a Toichi, aby sa presťahovali do Washingtonu, a boli veľmi zaneprázdnení prípravou pohybu svojho oddelenia. Z Bostonu odišli do Národného očného ústavu.

Pán McManus: Keď bol vytvorený na začiatku 70. rokov.

Dr. Kupfer: Šiel Kabasawa aj do NEI?

Dr. Kupfer: Áno, pamätám si ho.

Dr. Nakajima: A to bol začiatok ...

Dr. Nakajima: So žiadosťou, ktorú sme poslali NEI, mnohým mladým študentom a sú veľmi, veľmi vďační NEI za to, že im umožnili urobiť veľmi pekný kus práce. A bola to veľká skúsenosť pre japonských oftalmológov, že urobili takú prácu na NEI, ako aj zažili atmosféru USA, prinajmenšom amerického vedeckého sveta.

Pán McManus: Prečo - začali ste vysvetľovať niektoré dôvody, ale prečo to bolo tak, že japonskí vedci a najmä oftalmológovia so záujmom o výskum chceli prísť do USA, aby sa školili?

Dr. Nakajima: No. Samozrejme, sú tu niektorí, ktorí išli do Európy, napríklad Tokijská lekárska škola, ich oddelenie oftalmológie poslalo svojich mladých do Francúzska a niektorí ďalší do Nemecka a niektorí išli do Ruska, ale hlavne 70% prichádza do USA, pretože USA viedol svet.

Pán McManus: Carl, chcel si sa opýtať na JSPS?

Dr. Kupfer: V roku 1976 bola dosiahnutá dohoda medzi Národným očným ústavom a JSPS.

Pán McManus: Japonská spoločnosť na podporu vedy (JSPS).

Dr. Kupfer: Japonská spoločnosť na podporu ...

Dr. Kupfer: Veda, áno. (Smiech) A to predovšetkým určilo japonských vedcov, aby išli do rôznych laboratórií v USA a inde.

Dr. Kupfer: This was for American scientists to go to different laboratories in Japan.

Dr. Kupfer: Was there another arrangement by JSPS with another country besides the United States?

Dr. Nakajima: I do not know.

Dr. Kupfer: Not for ophthalmology?

Dr. Nakajima: Not in ophthalmology. In addition to JSPS there was a US/Japan project in tuberculosis, cancer and some other project run by the ministry of health and welfare of Japan.

Dr. Nakajima: And we—first we wanted to add ophthalmology to this project so that between the United States and Japan in a ministry of health and welfare but they said that there is 15 projects and unless some give up we can add no more. So that was unsuccessful. And I remember Carl went to the US Embassy in Japan and they found out—Minister of Education and JSPS has a big budget of exchange with many other countries and sent their exchange with such people and they were able to arrange this. And it was a very fruitful project, I think, and not only ophthalmology but for all scientists in vision and so on.

Dr. Kupfer: Now the Japanese ophthalmologists who came to the Intramural Program of the National Eye Institute was quite separate from the JSPS.

Dr. Nakajima: Yes, it was quite separate.

Dr. Kupfer: How was that organized initially Akira?

Dr. Nakajima: Uh, various. Some were supported by the department and some by the grant of your funds so it varies.

Dr. Kupfer: It varied. Správny. How were they chosen?

Dr. Nakajima: Well, it also very varied.

Dr. Nakajima: We submit a person who wanted to do research first and then a reliable person and clinically competent and in addition they went there by the agreement between NEI and ourselves.

Dr. Nakajima: I was responsible for some from our department but many others are from other departments.

Dr. Kupfer: I see. It was very decentralized.

Dr. Nakajima: Decentralized. Well, it should be.

Mr. McManus: In the JSPS agreement, do you remember how the funding went?

Dr. Nakajima: In JSPS it was a part of the organization of ministry of education and they have a fairly large budget, annual budget for scientific exchange, not only in medicine but also in basic science and so on. And uh, a part of their project, this exchange program started and other specialty—many of other specialties was envious for us on agreement between NEI and JSPS.

Mr. McManus: They paid—JSPS paid.

Dr. Nakajima: Yes and also they invite by their budget.

Mr. McManus: And so we must have paid for the US guys, the NEI.

Dr. Kupfer: No, he said they also paid—you said the JSPS would also pay for an American like John Dowling going to.

Dr. Nakajima: That’s right, that’s right. Yes, yes.

Dr. Kupfer: And JSPS paid for that.

Dr. Nakajima: Completely mutual.

Dr. Kupfer: But when we sent John Dowling, did we pay his travel? We did or did JSPS pay it?

Dr. Nakajima: In the case of John Dowling you paid the travel and we paid the stay.

Dr. Kupfer: The stay, right. That sounds…

Dr. Nakajima: The vice-versa for Japanese.

Mr. McManus: So we paid transportation. Maybe that’s when we started courtesy associates.

Mr. McManus: That’s what we did?

Mr. McManus: We’re trying to figure this out. We did all kinds of things but I just remembered that we had an outside contractor called Courtesy Associates to handle these kinds of things and other people at NIH had the same arrangement. That’s how we handled providing logistical support to our international activities.

Dr. Nakajima: Well, I still remember your family and Jin and Toichi came to my house right in the middle of a very hot summer and I saw the Sukiyaki the burning and cooling the whole room by air conditioning but still I thought you felt very hot. (Chuckles) And uh, do you remember I serve a French wine sauterne which my father brought back in 1930, the only one left.

Dr. Kupfer: Oh my goodness. (Laughter)

Dr. Nakajima: It was a treasure, my treasure.

Dr. Kupfer: Yes, I do remember that.

Dr. Nakajima: And you are an expert in wine.

Mr. McManus: Now you did mention there were some vision scientists, from this agreement who visited a special basic science center in Japan and I know there was a center for basic science that had some good basic scientists, was it Yoshizawa?

Dr. Nakajima: Institute for Basic Biology in Okazaki, Aichi Prefecture.

Mr. McManus: Right. That’s where Dowling went.

Dr. Nakajima: And they specialized in biology and also in chemistry. The institute is still there working very academically and they collect top scientists throughout Japan and I think John Dowling went there.

Dr. Nakajima: I think it was in this place.

Dr. Kupfer: He had a wonderful time, partly because his wife spoke Japanese.

Dr. Kupfer: Did you know that?

Dr. Nakajima: I did not know that.

Dr. Nakajima: She learned Japanese?

Dr. Kupfer: Well she was a Japanese.

Dr. Nakajima: Oh she was a Japanese?

Dr. Nakajima: Oh, I see. Oh, I didn’t know that.

Dr. Nakajima: So I’m sure they enjoyed very much there.

Dr. Kupfer: Yes. Um, it is very, very difficult Akira to choose an individual to receive research training and then to expect that they will stay in research. And you had already mentioned about half the people who came went into private practice when they returned, and maybe a third actually were in research. I would say from in my experience that that was very successful.

Dr. Nakajima: Ahhh, the first Japanese ophthalmologist who studied in the NEI from the beginning felt responsibility and he looks after the alumnae society. And he looked at 56 or 57 members who were at NEI during the last 20 years. They made a inquiry study. I brought the results here. Well, in Japan clinical people don’t need to do research to become a good doctor. But in Japan we have a system of doctorate who produce good research article and after submitting and reviewed by the committee they get a doctor of medical science. And the only additional qualifications to become a professor or some chief of an eye department of a big hospital, to have a doctorate was kind of a must, so many able doctors have that experience in doing research in addition to clinic. Usually after three or four years of clinical training they choose his likings in pathology, biochemistry, physiology have training in basic science and they got some topic and do some research. Of course there are researches done in basic, in a kind of a public health. After the beginning of post-graduate qualification in ophthalmic specialists, many people prefer to having this specialist qualification, but still the tradition of doing research as part of postgraduate education continues. And I think it is a very important trend and we should keep it. Of course there are people who don’t care about any type of research and leave the department to go to private practice. But out of those people we find a person who is interested in research.

Dr. Kupfer: Did many of these people who were chosen already were doing research so you thought given the chance…

Dr. Nakajima: In other words it should be very difficult to go to foreign countries and begin research from the beginning.

Dr. Nakajima: That’s nearly impossible.

Dr. Kupfer: You’re absolutely right.

Dr. Nakajima: They have a handicap of a language in addition to science so we assure especially in the case of JSPS we have a committee to select and JSPS recruit persons for the committee to decide. The committee was not big at the beginning, for five or six years, I was from the clinics and Prof. Reiji Hatori who was a very famous muscle physiologist, won some prize in Japan, was a partner in basic science. We decided to choose ophthalmologists, physiologist and engineer, one each year.

Dr. Kupfer: This was for the JSPS program?

Dr. Nakajima: JSPS, yes. And for other people it is according to their request.

Mr. McManus: The vision research—eye research in the US probably has increased by 10-15 fold—times, since the beginning of the NEI.

Dr. Nakajima: Yes, ARVO has grown tremendously—it’s uh now I think 10,000?

Mr. McManus: (also says 10,000 at the same time), yes, right.

Dr. Nakajima: Then they handle everything.

Mr. McManus: Right but a lot of those are in—or half of those are international members.

Mr. McManus: But the number of researchers—has grown at least 10 or 15 fold in the US. I was wondering has vision research has grown—eye research, in Japan since 1970?

Dr. Kupfer: Since 1970 the budget of the National Eye Institute was $23 million dollars. In 2005 it’s…

Mr. McManus: $700 Million and I cut that in half and just called it a 15 fold increase.

Dr. Kupfer: Right, so it’s the increase in money for research. Has there been an increase for money for research in Japan also?

Dr. Nakajima: Yes, I think so. I don’t know off hand the exact figure but of course I can approach…

Dr. Kupfer: No that’s okay we were just interested in whether it grew.

Dr. Nakajima: But roughly speaking we have our research money from our ministry of education which is more of a basic research and also a ministry of health and welfare which—deals with a more practical aspects.

Mr. McManus: Industry supports a lot of research I think.

Dr. Nakajima: Industry—not much.

Dr. Nakajima: Not much. Because of our rule of medical schools, especially students, you know we have big trouble with our students in 1960-70 and they have that kind of allergy with industry.

Dr. Nakajima: Yeah. Always they insisted to stay away from industry because of they were biased they thought. And to a certain extent that’s true but for medical science we need cooperation or the industry because we use the industry products for diagnosis and treatment. For example drug—without drug what shall I do? So to find out the good relationship with industry is very important.

Mr. McManus: Who did the—what Japanese clinicians did the studies on aldose reductase in Japan?

Mr. McManus: Akagi, yes exactly.

Dr. Nakajima: I think that he worked with Jin and he is a professor at Fukui Medical School at the moment and also Dr. Nishimura.

Mr. McManus: Yeah, yeah sure, sure I know her from NEI.

Dr. Nakajima: She is the professor of pharmacology at Kyoto Municipal Medical School.

Mr. McManus: Now is that drug still…

Dr. Nakajima: Well, Ono, Ono Pharmaceutical Company sells the aldose reductase inhibitor Kinedak. It is the only company in the world who sells it. I think the main indication is the trouble in peripheral nerves in diabetes mellitus.

Mr. McManus: What are the sales? Vieš? I saw that a few years ago but I can’t remember…

Dr. Nakajima: Well Ono is doing very well and Ono is enjoying sales over their quota against aldose reductase. And quite recently I think I read some article on the aldose reductase revival. Well, its curious trend of science that goes around.

Mr. McManus: Right. Just for the record the aldose reductase inhibitors were developed by Dr. Kinoshita and others at the NEI and they ran into trouble getting an appropriate compound in the US but they did get one in Japan and it went on the market and I think the sales are in the $10s of millions or a $100 illion. It’s quite substantial for the Ono Company. And Dr’s Akagi and Nishimura were two of the people who came from Japan to the NEI intramural program and worked on this technology which was then transferred back to Japan.

Dr. Nakajima: Dr. Nishimura still continues to work on cataract and diabetes and I think she did research when she was at the National Research Institute of Pechiatric Research in Tokyo. I’m told she isolated the human aldose reductase and then decided the gene for it.

Mr. McManus: Yes that’s right she did.

Dr. Kupfer: Was there any thought of doing a clinical trial?

Dr. Nakajima: I think so, uh there was I think a trial headed by former Professor of Internal Medicine at Nagoya University. I can’t recall the name. Maybe Professor H. Hotta.

Mr. McManus: Yeah, I actually remember that also.

Dr. Nakajima: Not for the retinopathy, but for neuropathy.

Dr. Kupfer: Well, if they could prove it worked for neuropathy that would be very good because then it would be worth looking at retinopathy.

Mr. McManus: Okay, I think that’s it for the exchanges unless you had something else Carl? Did you?

Dr. Kupfer: No, that clarifies it very well and obviously you’ve always said how great an effect training of these ophthalmologists was when they returned to Japan.

Dr. Nakajima: Yes, yes. Actually thoughts are changing so rapidly but still many, many problems waiting for solution and that is just one of the things.

Dr. Nakajima: There are many possible targets since aldose reductase but it remains to be a problem.

Mr. McManus: Yeah, Pfizer has a new drug that they’re working on with Rick Ferris. I should have asked this earlier but to sort of set the record—what roles have you played in international ophthalmology? You’re on the International Council…

Dr. Kupfer: He was the President of the International Council of Ophthalmology.

Dr. Nakajima: Yes, and now I am the Honorary Life President of the International Council of Ophthalmology, it’s a great honor.

Dr. Nakajima: I served on the Council when we decided to invite the International Congress in 1978 in Kyoto. It was decided in 1974 in Paris and I was elected to the President of the 23 rd International Congress in 1973 at the Council Meeting of Japanese Ophthalmological Society. I went to Britain and I was a kind of a pioneer in Japan in studying abroad. My British Council Scholar was 1956-57 and I went around Europe and saw many famous professors including on my way back Prof. Jules Francois. He was the President of International Council of Ophthalmology in 1974-1982. At that early time the United States was beginning to go up. And when I was in London Sir Duke Elder invited me to go into his institute but originally I went to Royal Eye Hospital to do some kind of research about blindness prevention so I declined to accept his kind offer. I didn’t want to embarrass my boss, Prof. A. Sorsby. I did some research work on refraction and myopia and devised some new method of measuring all of the optical element of the eye before going to UK. And also I did some research on trachoma when I worked in rural northern Japan. In London, Prof. Sorsby asked me to do a retinitis pigmentosa experiment. So while in London I did some experiment on it, now I dropped it. And two years later Dr. Mishima went to London—went to the Institute to work with David Maurice and so that was the beginning of his career in ophthalmic research and then he went to Boston and worked with C. Dohlman.

Dr. Kupfer: He almost decided to stay in the United States—Mishima.

Dr. Kupfer: Because he also went to Columbia when Dr. Dave Maurice went to Columbia.

Dr. Nakajima: He was an assistant professor there.

Dr. Nakajima: But the University of Tokyo…

Dr. Kupfer: That’s right, he couldn’t resist the University of Tokyo—that was it.

Dr. Nakajima: He was in the United States for four or five years…

Dr. Nakajima: With an interrupted period of 8 years.

Mr. McManus: Now you were also involved—I think Juntendo University, Department of Ophthalmology was a collaborating center of the World Health Organization in prevention of blindness.

Dr. Nakajima: Because of my interest in prevention of blindness and on return to Japan from London there was a creation of Asia Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology and as I was newly returned from foreign countries my senior asked me to look international affairs. So I began my international career by looking after Asia Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology, in cooperation with W. John Holmes of Hawaii.

Mr. McManus: Right—right here?

Dr. Nakajima: He was interested also prevention of blindness. In the Philippines there was a society of eye, ear, throat and nose at that time. And Dr. Geminiano T. de Ocampo in organizing the Asian Pacific Academy they fought a big fight in Philippines to make the separate ophthalmology society, separate from existing Society of ENT. I think the United States tradition was like that.

Dr. Nakajima: I guess in the U.S. separation of eye from ENT took place sometime later than Philippines.

Mr. McManus: Probably closer to the late ‘70s. Because Dave Noonan and Bruce Spivey. I think Dave Noonan was the only guy from the original academy staff who ended up in the San Francisco group because they were originally headquartered in Minnesota and when they split they went out to San Francisco. This was after the NEI began and after I joined the NEI. So, this was towards the late 70s.

Dr. Nakajima: Late ‘70s? So late? I thought this was during the ‘60s.

Dr. Kupfer: All through the ‘60s and the early ‘70s it was the Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology.

Mr. McManus: I came to the NEI in ’73 and I remember them coming down—it could have been ’74 or ’75 to visit the NEI.

Dr. Nakajima: So the Philippines preceded that and Japan was from the beginning only ophthalmology. Ophthalmology was independent from other ENT from the beginning. I think it’s because of the history. Before Meiji era, we had the visit of the Dutch ophthalmologists and they found out trachoma so prevalent, and ophthalmology was so important and ophthalmology grew as an independent. Important specialty from the beginning of introduction of western medicine.

Dr. Kupfer: When roughly was that in the Meiji era?

Dr. Nakajima: Oh, it was in 1840, 50.[NB: 1868-1912]

Mr. McManus: What era was that?

Dr. Nakajima: Meiji begin an in 1867. So there was a beginning of a western medicine a few decades before the beginning of Meiji’s era.

Dr. Kupfer: And it was the Dutch who came.

Dr. Kupfer: That’s interesting.

Dr. Nakajima: Dutch ophthalmologists such as Pompe Needelfort, the pupil of Prof. Donders came.

Mr. McManus: Now, you got into it internationally and Juntendo became a collaborating center with the WHO?

Dr. Nakajima: Yes because of the International Prevention of Blindness activity activated by Maumenee. I still remember in 1967 or 8 I had a phone call from Ed Maumenee that I must go to the ministry of health and welfare to vote at the general assembly of WHO to reach out information of blindness was a very important issue. So I went to minister of health to vote for this in the whole beginning, 1967-68.

Dr. Kupfer: I think it was ’67.

Dr. Nakajima: ’67 yes, oh you know that thing?

Dr. Kupfer: Because that’s when the WHO made a commitment to enter into the prevention of blindness.

Dr. Nakajima: That’s right. Yeah that was the first one, the beginning. And then in ’72 there was a WHO meeting at which I attended, chaired by the Italian…

Dr. Nakajima: No, not Tarizzo. It was that professor in Rome, Prof. G. B. Bietti, a very famous professor.

Dr. Kupfer: I know who you mean, um, when he passed away they had to create three new professors… (laughter).

Mr. McManus: A very important guy.

Dr. Nakajima: He was the chairman. And the future policy was set by this committee. He was a very good friend of François a very famous one, teacher of Dr. Tarizzo Mano. Anyhow, and at the meeting we set the policy of prevention of blindness in the world and it was published in the WHO Technical report serious No. 69. Around that time or before that time in 1966 there was society on the prevention of blindness existed for some time since 1920 originated by a French professor, Jon Pierre Bailliart. And they discussed only the blindness in Europe or developed countries.

Dr. Nakajima: Association of the Prevention of Blindness usually meets every four years, at the time of the International Congress of Ophthalmology, and the Congress in Munich, in 1966 Ed Maumenee brought up the question that this society is talking about the developed country but there are huge problems of blindness in developing countries. And there was a kind of a quarrel. And afterwards in 1974 in Paris there was a preparation to reorganize the International Prevention of Blindness Society to include worldwide problems and not only by ophthalmologists because ophthalmologists does medical practice but nothing to do with collecting funds and management, so we have to have people who looks after that side. So the International Society was reorganized to the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness.

Mr. McManus: The International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness (IAPB).

Dr. Nakajima: International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness.

Dr. Kupfer: Sir John Wilson was at the?

Dr. Nakajima: And Sir John Wilson took the initiative. In the 1956 or ‘57 British Council (I went there by British Council Scholarship). British Council arranged my visit to see John Wilson to his place, and we discussed at length of all the blind people, whatever it is he wished to have a site whenever possible and the prevention was the best way and we agreed to this. And we continued our friendship and exchanged since then.

Dr. Nakajima: It was a were wide opportunity. In the meantime as I told you I was elected to become the President of the 23 rd International Congress in 1978 in Kyoto in 1978 was successful. Prof. Jules Francois was the President of the Council, and Ed Maumenee was Vice President. And I still remember I tried to invite China to attend the International Conference.

Mr. McManus: And this was in ’78?

Dr. Nakajima: Yeah, ’78. And I went to China in 1975, to China and saw Prof. Chang Hsiao Low in Beijing at Tong Ren Hospital and discussed this. And he promised me to mention it with his phases of government. Taiwan was a member from the beginning. And we had no cause to kick out a member unless they failed to pay their dues for three years. And Taiwan rather regularly paid the dues so we had no means of kicking him out. And after all China couldn’t come and Taiwan came because we couldn’t kick out Taiwan. But Viet Nam came. In 1975 Viet Nam was in fight and in ’76 I went to the Viet Nam Embassy asking them to send delegate. At first, they were dubious. And I went to the embassy about 10 times on the matter. At last they sent two delegates to the Congress, and since then we continue our friendship.

Mr. McManus: The uh, I think Carl—when were you President of the IAPB?

Mr. McManus: ’82 to ’90. And the NEI began to play more of a role on the world scene with the WHO also and as a collaborating center means and we ran the IAPB for eight years and did lots of things internationally from the NEI. You were certainly aware of the role of the NEI. What did you think of that? I mean, first you were talking about you going over to Britain for training, and then the role of the Dutch and the Germans and the French and the Italians and then the US began to play an emerging role through the National Eye Institute, what were your views of that?

Dr. Nakajima: It’s a trend. Europeans first go out and I was looking at the states gains and ability and interest the United States has a part to perform worldwide activity. And to do that Ed Maumenee worked very hard for that. He was from the advisory committee of the WHO from the beginning, I remember.

Mr. McManus: Were you on that committee?

Dr. Nakajima: Yeah I was. I think I attended all the meetings related to the prevention of blindness from ’72 on while I was in professorship at Juntendo University.

Mr. McManus: So, that would have been ’72 to…

Dr. Nakajima: And there was a two yearly meeting by WHO and of all the only meeting I couldn’t go was a meeting in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, Africa.

Mr. McManus: I was there. You were smart not to go there.

Mr. McManus: Didn’t you get that parasite there?

Mr. McManus: I thought you got a parasite there.

Dr. Nakajima: (laughter) What type of parasite?

Dr. Kupfer: Oh, I don’t know but as soon as I came back the Allergy and Infectious Diseases Institute got rid of everything.

Dr. Nakajima: You are fortunate.

Dr. Nakajima: You are fortunate.

Mr. McManus: Because you could go over to the Allergy, over to Tony Fauci’s group—I know it wasn’t Tony Fauci but…

Dr. Nakajima: You went over there too?

Dr. Kupfer: They treated me. They had a lot of experience in treating those types of diseases.

Dr. Nakajima: Actually, why I couldn’t go because in my university there is a rule either the professor or assistant professor should be on duty. In 1980, the assistant professor, Dr. Atruski Kanai was on leave to United States to set up a microscope with professor Herb Kaufman.

Mr. McManus: Dr. Herb Kaufman.

Dr. Nakajima: He was with University of Florida before and he moved to New Orleans and he asked my assistant professor to set up electron microscope in the laboratory and he was there for one year. And that was in 1980 when we had the meeting in Ouagadougou.

Mr. McManus: You worked also with the International Lions and we’re on the—and Carl was on the group, the SightFirst Advisory Committee. How long have you been with the Lions program?

Dr. Nakajima: Well, I think it’s a great, contribution of Carl to ask the Lions to do such a big undertaking in the prevention of blindness. Actually, there are several opportunities by different organizations but Lion Club is different from all the other different society in the sense that they have their membership in the local community and they propose that the problem of the blindness problem from their local community and they want to prove that they do it by themselves or, and without technicians or experts. Once I told that at one the meetings of Advisory Committee of SightFirst. I was involved from the beginning Carl was very kindly wanted me to join. Since then probably I am one of the most members to obtain there are two preparatory discussion meetings the one meeting in Singapore and another in Chicago. And since then once or twice every year there is a meeting—of advisory committee. And probably I attend maybe more than 90% of all of them.

Mr. McManus: You’re doing the best you can do by helping them.

Dr. Nakajima: I attend to my duty.

Mr. McManus: You mentioned kindly Carl’s role in the NEI’s role in getting the Lions and urging them to get into this area. And Carl this is one of my last questions, since this is a history—we are doing a history of the NEI. How do you view the National Eye Institute’s role in international ophthalmology? You’ve already mentioned some of this, about working with the WHO and working with kind of taking over maybe where the European’s and others worked before but do you see NEI as an important force or…

Dr. Nakajima: Well, how to express it. Well, it’s the center, the only center of ophthalmology to do very deep and extensive work in the prevention of blindness. I understand you are in charge of distributing funds to the researchers in the United States and some abroad so as the United States is investing quite a lot of money. Background research in basic scientists and the role while playing the National Eye Institute is very important and no other institute—for example, in Britain there is an Institute of Ophthalmology. The history is very old, but comparable to the National Eye Institute in size and activity they are active but their activity is limited.

Mr. McManus: Yeah, but one of the things and I think you already expressed it was the fact that we had a certain success in raising funds and being able to get going at an accelerated level, and then do collaborations with other places, which helped raise ophthalmology up in the US and around the world as a health provider. As everybody said, well let’s max the US, this is what they’re doing there and it’s just the same way as when Germany and Britain started at the beginning. So, it was very interesting when I visited the Okasazki (sp) Institute of Basic Sciences, for them to see that there was an NEI and all this activity going on it help the vision scientists there I think. And then, what else?

Dr. Nakajima: In Japan currently our friends are trying to set up a somewhat similar institute but although we have a big institute research on cancer, cardio vascular, pediatrics and neural, psychiatric, we tried to set up ophthalmology but still it’s in the embryonic stage and government is trying to restrict the function to clinical problems.

Dr. Kupfer: I think that’s a wonderful survey Akira and I think that one of the things that will come out of this interview is when people think of the prevention of blindness they automatically think of François and they think of Maumenee and even if you go back further, John McClain. But you don’t see Akira Nakajima’s name and we’ll take care of that. (laughter)

Mr. McManus: Yes, as a matter of fact when you were talking, Carl and I have tried to sort some of this ourselves and this will be helpful. And I was thinking wouldn’t it have been nice to do this with John Wilson and Ed Maumenee and some of the others back—but at least now and at least we’re taking advantage of this opportunity, and I’m very happy that you agreed to do this, and came all the way over here for this interview.

Dr. Nakajima: I think we have to do more promotion to let ophthalmology in the world know the problem.

Mr. McManus: Yes, and that’s—that’s something that’s kind of hidden in this, this whole business that one of the big roles—one of the big jobs we had in getting the eye institute going was to get people concerned about eye diseases and problems of the eye and we became empowered but there were a lot of other people doing the same thing around the world, you were doing it in Japan, other people were doing it elsewhere. There was Prevention of Blindness, just to get people interested in eyes and in eye disease and we’re all part of that together, and if we can all make that happen around the world, then our job—whatever country we’re in becomes easier.

Dr. Nakajima: Cataracts is the top cause so we could invest money and effort, blindness in the world would become much, much less by increasing cataract surgery. But for other trouble the science doesn’t have progress so much that has elderly people increases all of trouble, will increase for some time. So I think that we ophthalmologists can be proud of the progress especially in the prevention of blindness.

Dr. Kupfer: And now we’re beginning on refractive error.

Dr. Nakajima: Yes, but it is by spectacles, but of course strong myopia poses difficult problems for us. And I think that our next target is glaucoma. Glaucoma is still an enigma.


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